Изучите следующие сочинения и напишите собственные на следующие темы. Выпишите подчеркнутые слова и выражения, которые можно использовать в других сочинениях, и дайте их перевод.
Tourism is becoming increasingly important as a source of revenue to many countries but its disadvantages should not b overlooked.
You should use your own ideas, knowledge and experience and support your arguments with examples and relevant evidence.
Faster planes and cheaper flights are making it easier than ever before for people to travel*. In most 'developed' societies, visiting exotic places is a sought-after status symbol. The tourism industries of both developed and developing countries have recognized this fact and are learning to take advantage of it.**
There are, however, some problems associated with this new industry. Firstly***, there is the increasing crime rate. Some locals see tourists as easy prey because, not only are they in unfamiliar territory and therefore less able to take care of themselves, but also they carry visible items of wealth, such as cameras and jewelry which can be disposed of quickly for a profit****.
Another major problem is health. With greater mobility comes greater danger of spreading contagious diseases around the world*****. One carrier returning home could easily start an epidemic before their illness was diagnosed. Moreover****** the emergence of many more diseases which resist antibiotics is causing scientists to be increasingly concerned about this issue.
Also to be considered is the natural environment, which can be seriously threatened by too many visitors. Australia's Great Barrier Reef, for example, is in danger of being destroyed by tourists and there are plans to restrict visitors to some of the delicate coral cays*******.
These are just three of the reasons why any country should be wary of committing itself to an extensive tourism development program********.
Introduction doesn't repeat question. - Введение не повторяет вопроса.
** Tackles question. - Затрагивает проблему.
*** Indicates that a number of points will be discussed in order. - Указывает, что ряд вопросов будут рассмотрены по порядку.
**** Clarifies problem - keeps to the point. - Проясняет проблему- придерживается темы.
*****New paragraph for new topic. Important aspects of our lives. - Новый абзац для новой темы. Важные аспекты нашей жизни.
******Appropriate use of connectors. - Уместное использование слов-связок.
******* Gives examples. - Дает примеры.
******** Conclusion rounds off well without repeating a question or wasting words. - Заключение написано без повторения вопроса и лишних слов.
The mass media, including television, radio and newspapers, have great influence in shaping people's ideas. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Give your reasons.
The undeniable usefulness of the media in almost instantly providing information about events around the world is largely taken for granted. But in our dependence on mass media have a powerful influence in shaping our lives. We have come to depend on them for information and entertainment, and in doing so we let them affect the media we have allowed them to mould our notions and opinions of events, places and people. Though few of us probably think about it, our conceptions of, say, our elected officials spring from television images and newspaper stories. Most of us will never meet prime ministers or presidents, but anyone who is regularly exposed to the media will have an opinion of them. When it is time to cast our vote, we will make our decision based on how the media portray the candidates. We are similarly swayed by coverage of wars. The media, representing the values of their owners, societies and governments, tend to report wars with a bias; which is the 'good' and which the 'bad' is determined for us by reporters, editors and commentators, and sure enough the public begins to form opinions that reflect the coverage they see, hear and read in the major media.
The media are also influential in the way they facilitate the spread of culture and life-style. The so-called 'global youth culture', in which one finds young people around the world displaying a common interest in music, clothing styles and films, is an example of the media's enormous sway in this regard. A popular figure such as Michael Jackson would never be so well known were it not for the media's extensive reach into every society on the globe.
Thus I would argue that the mass media's influence is certainly great. Indeed, with technological advancements such as the Internet bringing even more forms of electronic media to our homes and workplaces, it is likely the media's influence will grow even stronger.
'Telecommuting' refers to workers doing their jobs from home for part of each week and communicating with their office using computer technology. Telecommuting is growing in many countries and is expected to be common for most office workers in the coming decades.
How do you think society will be affected by the growth of telecommuting?
The spread of telecommuting is sure to have far-reaching effects on society. By itself, telecommuting refers to office, workers spending much of their time working from home and using electronic technologies to communicate with their employers The broader implications of telecommuting, however, may involve changes to corporate structure, workers' lifestyles and even urban planning.
The most obvious changes may be apparent in the 'normal' offices of companies, governments and other organisations. If even half the working week is spent telecommuting from home, then we would initially expect many empty desks in the office. As offices grow smaller, workers coming in for the day would be expected to share desks with their absent colleagues. Thus, in turn, may affect the social atmosphere of an organisation, however, as less social contact with one's colleagues could harm morale and loyalty.
For the individual office worker, telecommuting would mean spending more time at home. For a parent with young children, this may be a blessing. Moreover, many telecommuters would be able to work the hours they wished: having a nap in the afternoon, for example, but working some hours in the evening. One substantial benefit for all telecommuting workers is that there will be no need to travel to work, allowing more free time.
The structure of urban life is also likely to be affected by telecommuting. We would expect to see fewer cars on the road during peak hours and, eventually, a smaller concentration of offices in cities' central business districts. In short, people will have less reason to travel to city centres from outlying areas. As more people work and live in the same location shops and cultural events will likely relocate themselves out оf the city centre.
In sum, telecommuting will serve not only to change the way we work but also the way we live.
Many people believe that women make better parents than men and that this is why they have the greater role in raising children in most societies. Others claim that men are just as good as women at parenting.
Write an essay expressing your point of view. Give reasons for your answer.
The view that women are better parents than men has shown itself to be true throughout history. This is not to say that men are not of importance in child-rearing; indeed, they are most necessary if children are to appreciate fully the roles of both sexes. But women have proven themselves superior parents as a result of their conditioning, their less aggressive natures and their generally better communication skills.
From the time they are little girls, females learn about nurturing. First with dolls and later perhaps with younger brothers and sisters, girls are given the role of career. Girls see their mothers m the same roles and so it is natural that they identify this as a female activity. Boys, in contrast, learn competitive roles far removed from what it means to nurture. While boys may dream of adventures, girls' conditioning means they tend to see the future in terms of raising families.
Girls also appear to be less aggressive than boys. In adulthood, men, not women, who prove to be the aggressors in crime and in war. Obviously, in raising children, a more patient, gentle manner is preferable to a more aggressive one. Although there certainly exist gentle men and aggressive women, by and large, females are less likely to resort to violence in problems. Finally, women tend to be better communicators than men. This is shown in intelligence tests, where females, on average, do better in verbal communication than males. Of course, communication is of utmost importance in rearing children, as children tend to learn from and adopt the communication styles of their parents.
Thus, while it is all very well to suggest a greater role for men in raising children, let us not forget that women are generally better suited to the parenting role.
The idea of going overseas for university study is an exciting prospect for many people. But while it may offer some advantages, it is probably better to stay home because of the difficulties a student inevitably encounters living and studying in a different culture.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
There is no doubt that going to study in a foreign country, with its different language and culture, can be a frustrating and sometimes painful experience. But while overseas study has its drawbacks, the difficulties are far outweighed by the advantages. Indeed, people who go abroad for study open themselves up to experiences that those who stay at home will never have.
The most obvious advantage to overseas university study is real-life use of a different language. While a person can study a foreign language in his or her own country, it cannot compare with constant use of the language in academic and everyday life. There is no better opportunity to improve second-language skills than living in the country in which it is spoken. Moreover, having used the language during one's studies offers a distinct advantage when one is applying for jobs back home that require the language.
On a university campus, the foreign student is not alone in having come from far away. He or she will likely encounter many others from overseas and it is possible to make friends from all around the world. This is not only exciting on a social level, but could lead to important overseas contacts in later professional life.
Finally living and studying abroad offers one a new and different perspective of the world and, perhaps most important, of one's own country. Once beyond the initial shock of being in a new culture, the student slowly begins to get a meaningful understanding of the host society. On returning home, one inevitably sees one's own country in a new, often more appreciative, light.
In conclusion, while any anxiety about going overseas for university study is certainly understandable, it is important to remember that the benefits offered by the experience make it well worthwhile.
The rising levels of congestion and air pollution found in most of the world's cities can be attributed directly to the rapidly increasing number of private cars in use. In order to reverse this decline in the quality of life in cities, attempts must be made to encourage people to use their cars less and public transport more.
Discuss possible ways to encourage the use of public transport.
Anyone who living in a city is aware of the increasing number of cars on the road and the kinds of problems this creates: traffic jams, air pollution and longer communicating periods. As economics grow and access to cars spreads to increasing numbers of people, this trend is likely to worsen. The solution, it would seem, is for government to encourage the use of public transport in urban areas, thus decreasing dependence on the car.
One way to stimulate public transport use is to make private car use more expensive and inconvenient. The introduction of tolls along urban motorways has been successfully employed in many cities. Other such measures are high-priced permits for parking in urban areas and the restriction of parking to a limited number of cars. Faced with high costs or no place to park commuters would perhaps be more willing to abandon their cars in favor of buses or trains.
There are also less punishing ways of spurring public transport use. The construction of free carparks at suburban train stations has proven successful in quite a number of countries. This allows commuters to drive part of the way, but take public transport into the central, most congested, urban areas.
Indeed, making public transport more comfortable and convenient should work to attract more commuters and decrease traffic congestion. Public transport that is convenient and comfortable retains its passengers, much like any business that satisfies its customers. The more commuters committed to taking public transport, the less congestion on city streets.
In some countries the average worker is obliged to retire at the age of 50, while in others people can work until they are 65 to 70. Meanwhile, we see some politicians enjoying power well into their eighties. Clearly, there is little agreement on an appropriate retirement age. Until what age do you think people should be encouraged to remain in paid employment?
Give reasons for your answer.
Mandatory retirement age varies from society to society, perhaps a reflection of economics, population pressures or simply value systems. Indeed, retirement at 50 can probably be easily
justified as that at 70. It is my belief, however, that the longer an able person is allowed to work, the better for both the individual worker and the employer.
Chronological age is not always a true indicator of ability. While some 65-year-olds may not perform as well as they did in their past, many workers at this age do just as well or better than they used to. People's suitability for a position should be a reflection of their performance in the job, rather than the number of wrinkles or grey hairs they have. Employers concerned about the increasing age of their employees need only observe their work records. Those doing poorly may be asked to retire, but those as yet unaffected by age should stay on. Indeed, it would appear economical for an organisation to retain its older employees when possible rather than spend time and money on training new workers.
Remaining in one's job for as long as one is able makes sense as life expectancies increase around the world. As people live longer, they are longer able to contribute to society in the form of meaningful work. But they are also in need of income for a longer period, so a mandatory retirement age of 55 for someone who is statistically likely to live to 77 becomes increasingly difficult to justify. At a time when populations are aging, governments are less able to provide for their senior citizens, so by keeping able workers in paid employment for as long as is practicable, public expenditures are less strained. .
Thus, workers who can still demonstrate their capacity to carry out their work should not be asked to retire simply because they have reached a certain age. Societies that insist on early retirement may do well to look again at their policies.
Recent advantages in human embryology and genetic engineering have rised the issue of how this knowledge ought to be used and it is now a matter of considerable public concern and debate.
There are two main areas in which such research is widely regarded as being beneficial, and first of these is in the field of conception. Doctors can help otherwise infertile couple to have children using so-called “test-tube baby” technique. Although there was considerable controversy when the first such experiments were introduced, there is now a general acceptance that the process is both safe and useful.
The second area is that research into genetically transmitted diseases. Some of these only affect children of a particular sex, as is the case with hemophilia, which only affects males. In such circumstances, by determining the sex of the child in advance, doctors can ensure that the disease will not be passed on. In addition to this, research into human genetics offers the potential of finding the causes for other diseases and their eventual cures.
On the other hand, there is deep-rooted hostility towards scientists who interfere with nature and human life. This suspicion has a long history, and is reflected in literary works such as Frankenstein and Brave New World. In addition to this, however, there is wide-spread revulsion at the real life “experiments” that have been made carried out in the past. As a result, there is a common fear that scientific developments in genetics will inevitably be abused and that they will lead inexorably towards “designer children” and other worse excesses.
In conclusion, it can be said that research in these areas needs to be regulated rather than banned. There are many potential benefits as well as dangers, and therefore, if this research is to be continued, it must be carried out under strict supervision and controlled by well-balanced legislation.