Что такое эссе
|В эссе вам необходимо показать, что вы можете выразить свое мнение ясно, упорядоченно и интересно. На него отводится 40 минут. Типичные темы следующие:
||Посетите ресурсную комнату за линками для новостей и журналов (the resource room). Читайте по одной или две статьи каждый день, что улучшит ваш английский и ваши общие знания. Обе эти вещи важны в IELTS.|
|Легко сказать - поймите, на самом деле многие делают здесь огромную ошибку. В IELTS, если вы начали писать неправильно, у вас не останется время поменять направление своей мысли – времени маловато – всего 40 минут!
Эссе обычно ставит решение следующих вопросов:
Smoking is a habit which claims many lives and is a great drain on health services. One way to combat smoking would be to make it illegal. What are the pros and cons of such a government policy? What alternative strategies can you suggest to combat smoking? (понимание двух или более сторон проблемы)
"The best way to help developing countries is to give them financial aid." Write an essay either agreeing or disagreeing with this statement. Suggest alternatives to this policy.(развейте хорошо одну сторону проблемы)
The crime rate among teenagers has increased dramatically in many countries. Discuss some possible reasons for this increase and suggest solutions to this problem. (обсудите проблему и предложите решения)
Ежедневно практикуйтесь в написании эссе. Не забудьте о планировании своего ответа.
Спустя несколько недель,начните
|Чаще всего оказывается, что вопрос не так ясен. Попытайтесь решить, какой это тип вопроса:
"When teenagers under the age of 18 commit crimes, their parents should be held responsible." Write an essay discussing this statement and suggest ways to combat teenage crime.
Вы должны обсудить это предложение не более чем с двух точек зрения... Каковы преимущества и недостатки несения родителями ответственности? Каковы преимущества и недостатки несения ответственности подростками? Затем вы должны предложить пути преодоления подростковой преступности.
Обычно часто налицо имеется одна из следующих проблем:
Вам нужно тщательно спланировать ваше сочинение для преодоления этих проблем
Когда вы видете в постановке задачи
Вы можете изменить утверждение в этом примере на:
|Планирование эссе очень важно. Если у вас нет плана, ваше эссе будет неорганизованным и вам трудно будет выразить свою идею. Это преступление в IELTS! Сильные идеи и хорошая организация эссе будут влиять на ваш балл. В этой секции вы научитесь быстро генерировать идеи и ясно их упорядочивать.||Поначалу вы можете для плана
уделять много времени. Если вы
будете интенсивно тренироваться,
скорость планирования будет увеличиваться.
|1. Генерирование идей:
Взгляните на следующее утверждение:
"Action such as recycling cannot be left up to the good will of the individual. It must be forced on us by government." Обсудите это предложение и предложите, каким образом правительство может поощрить людей быть более осведомленными в проблемах окружающей среды.
Не забудьте заменить предложение на вопрос: "Should action such as recycling be left up to the good will of the individual or should it be forced on us by government?"
Посмотрите понимание вопроса, если вы забыли этот совет. Помните, что в этом вопросе 2 части – обсуждение и предложение.
|Для генерирования идей задайте некоторые простые вопросы, используя вопросительные слова:
who и т.д.
|Попытайтесь ответить на эти
вопросы сами. Не пишите целые
предложения в своем плане,
только слова или фразы, помогающие вам помнить свои идеи.
Пишите на этом этапе подготовки к
эссе все свои идеи, даже если они
кажутся вам глупыми – они могут быть
|2. Упорядочивание своих идей.
Теперь вам необходимо упорядочить свои идеи ясным и логическим образом. Вам также необходимо помнить, что вашей целью является 250 слов. Вам определенно необходимы введение и заключение, поэтому организовывать необходимо остальную часть сочинения. Так же как мы делаем это здесь, вы можете сделать это на экзамене, когда будете отвечать на простые вопросы.
Далее расположите идеи по логике следования. Наш план эссе выглядит так:
How can the government encourage/force us to recycle? 3
Why should we recycle? 1
Why don't people recycle without government law? 2
Who should check if people are recycling? The police? 4
|Типичное IELTS эссе состоит из 4 или 5 параграфов:
- обсуждение одной стороны вопроса
- обсуждение другой стороны вопроса/ добавление аргументов
- в заключении вы можете написать свое собственное мнение
Номера показывают последовательность в эссе. Помните – есть только одно утверждение в хорошей последовательности. Возможны многие ответы. Вы можете иметь разные идеи в разной последовательности.Это конечно здорово, поскольку идеи сильны и сочинение упорядочено.
На этом этапе вы можете обнаружить,что у вас слишком много идей. Вы должны выбрать наиболее важные и полностью их обсудить. И лучше всего развить хорошо несколько идей,чем иметь список нераскрытых идей.
образец моделирования эссе
|You should spend no more than 40 minutes on this task and write at least 250 words.Present a written argument or case to an educated reader with no specialist knowledge of the following topic.
Computer technology benefits modern society in many ways, but its disadvantages should not be overlooked. Discuss the dangers of computer technology.
Use your own idea, knowledge and experience to support your argument with examples and relevant evidence.
|Не тратьте время на переписывание
названия на экзамене. Не забудьте посмотреть раздел Уложиться во время для эссе.
|It is certainly true that communication has changed rapidly this century, particularly over the last few years. Even international contact, for example, can be made at the touch of a button using fax or e-mail. More and more people spend more and more time in front of computer screens, both at work and in their leisure time. Those who say that such technology has an entirely positive effect should ask themselves if there are any dangers or disadvantages to this new lifestyle.||Этот тип вопроса для читателя в конце введения: "Those who say that....... should ask themselves if......"
Это очень хорошая структура предложения
– попытайтесь использовать это в своем собственном сочинении.
|There are quite serious health consequences of a sedentary life in front of a computer - the most obvious being eye strain. Sitting at a computer screen for long periods of time is generally unhealthy, as the individual does not get any exercise. However, it is the social consequences that are the most alarming. The computer and the internet have made direct human contact less and less necessary. People have the illusion of community through the web, when in fact there is no such community. Nothing can replace real contact with real people in real streets. We contact people by e-mail because it is convenient to us - this is not the same as a natural relationship, which may be anything but convenient. We understand others only through what they write in e-mails, which is not the same as reading the subtle changes in emotion on a person's face. We may find in the future that people find human relationships too inconvenient and confusing, and prefer to stay with virtual friends rather than real ones.||Обратите внимание, что автор говорит и
о будущем! Это одна из частей вопроса.
Раздел составлен по материалам сайта www.english-net.com.
For & Against Essays
From the book "Successful Writing" pp.60-79 sent by Katya
A “for & against” essay is a formal piece of writing in which a topic is considered from opposing points of view. You should present both sides in a fair way by discussing them objectively and in equal detail.
A good essay of this type should consist of:
a) An introductory paragraph in which you clearly state the topic to be discussed, without giving your opinion;
b) A main body in which the points for & against along with your justifications, examples or reasons are presented in separate paragraphs; and
c) A closing paragraph in which you state your opinion or give a balanced consideration of the topic.
Note: Opinion words (I think, I believe, In my opinion, etc.) can only be used in the closing paragraph where you give your opinion on the topic.
Points to consider
Before you start writing your essay you should make a list of the points for & against.
Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence which summarises the topic of the paragraph.
e.g. In addition, many people feel reading is a relaxing and worthwhile activity.
Do not use informal style (e.g. short forms, colloquial language, etc.) or strong language to express your opinion (e.g. I know …, etc.). Express your opinion in a non-emotional way (e.g. It seems that, I therefore feel …, etc.). Well-known quotations relevant to the topic you are writing about will make your composition more interesting. For example, if you are writing an essay on education, a quotation you may include is: “Education is a progressive discovery of your own ignorance.” (Will Durant)
Note: Although these are balanced arguments, if you feel that either the for or against side is stronger and should be supported, this side should be presented in paragraphs 4 & 5, thus leading the reader to your conclusion.
State topic (summary of the topic without giving your opinion)
Paragraphs 2 & 3
Arguments for and justifications, examples, and/or reasons
Paragraphs 4 & 5
Arguments against and justification, examples, and/or reasons
Balanced consideration/ your opinion directly or indirectly
Useful expressions and kinking words/phrases
- To list points:
Firstly, First of all, In the first place, To begin/start with,
Secondly, Thirdly, Finally
- To list advantages:
One/Another/A further/An additional (major) advantage of … is …
The main/greatest/first advantage of … is …
- To list disadvantages:
One/Another/A further/An additional (major) disadvantage/drawback of …
The main/greatest/most serious/first disadvantage / drawback of …
Another negative aspect of …
- To introduce points/arguments for & against:
One (very convincing) point/argument in favour of … / against …,
A further common criticism of … / It could be argued that …,
It is often
claim/suggest/argue/feel that …
maintain/believe/point out/agree/hold that …
advocate (+ing/noun)/support the view that …
oppose the view that …
are in favour of/against …
of the opinion that/convinced that …
opposed to …
- To add more points to the same topic:
in addition (to this), furthermore, moreover, besides, apart from, what is more, as well as, not to mention (the fact) that, also, not only … but also/as well/both … and, There is another side to the issue/question/argument of…
To make contrasting points:
|on the other hand, however, still, yet, but, nonetheless, nevertheless, even so,||it may be said/argued/claimed that, …|
oppose this viewpoint
although, though, even though, while, whilst, whereas, despite/in spite of (the fact that), regardless of the fact that
Opponents of … argue/believe/claim that …
The fact that … contradicts the belief/idea that …
While it is true to say that …, in fact …
While/Although …, it cannot be denied that …
Example (For & Against Essay)
“Censorship is necessary in modern society”. Discuss.
Censorship is an issue which frequently generates a great deal of heated debate, with supporters maintaining that it is vital in order to protect society, whilst opponents claim that it is an unjustifiable restriction of public access to information.
Firstly, all countries have secrets which must be safeguarded for reasons of national security. For instance, if an enemy country were to acquire such highly sensitive information, the effects could be catastrophic. Consequently, governments have to have the power to restrict access to information concerning areas such as the armed forces or particular aspects of foreign policy.
Secondly, it is often argued that censorship is necessary to prevent the broadcast and publication of obscene material which is considered offensive or harmful to public morals. Many people feel that, without censorship the public would be constantly subjected to material that the majority would find offensive. For this reason, the government has a duty to impose certain restrictions on the mass media by censoring films and texts which contain explicit scenes of sex, violence or foul language.
In contrast, opponents of censorship point out that when it is abused by governments, censorship becomes an instrument used to misinform society and maintain power. In order to control the flow of information which riches the public, repressive regimes try to put constraints on the media, thus denying citizens the right to information owing to the fact that governments believe it may lead them to seek greater freedom.
Furthermore, it is generally felt that mature adults are able to make informed choices about what they watch, read and listen to and should, therefore, be permitted to make their own decisions. For example, some comedians make use of offensive language taboo subjects in their performances. Critics of censorship argue that the only people who will watch or listen to such material are adults who have made a conscious decision to do so. Thus, it is claimed, it is unjust to censor material like this since it is not forced upon people who may subsequently be offended by it.
All things considered, it can be concluded that a certain degree of censorship is always necessary. The best course of action would be to attempt to achieve a balance between the requirements of the country and the public on the one hand, and individuals’ rights on the other.
An opinion essay is a formal piece of writing. It requires your opinion on the topic, which must be stated clearly, giving various viewpoints on the topic supported by reasons and/or examples. You should also include the opposing viewpoint in another paragraph.
A successful opinion essay should have:
a) An introductory paragraph in which you state the topic and your opinion.
b) A main body which consists of several paragraphs, each presenting a separate viewpoint supported by reasons. You also include a paragraph presenting the opposing viewpoint and reason why you think it is an unconvincing viewpoint; and
c) A conclusion in which you restate your opinion using different words.
Points to consider
- Decide whether you agree or disagree with the subject of the topic, than make a list of your viewpoints and reasons.
- Write well-developed paragraphs, joining the sentences with appropriate linking words and phrases. Do not forget to start each paragraph with a topic sentence which summarises what the paragraph is about.
- Linking words and phrases should also be used to join one paragraph with the other.
State the topic and your opinion clearly
Viewpoint 1 and reason/example
Viewpoint 2 and reason/example
Viewpoint 3 and reason/example (you may include more viewpoints, and thus more paragraphs in the main body)
Opposing viewpoint and reason/example (you may include more viewpoints, and thus more paragraphs in the main body)
Useful expressions for giving opinions
To my mind/To my way of thinking, …
It is my (firm) belief/opinion/view/conviction (that) …
|In my opinion/view …
I (firmly) believe …
I am (not) convinced that …
I (do not) agree that/with
It strikes me that
|My opinion is that,
I (definitely) feel/think that …
I am inclined to believe that …
It seems/appears to me …
As far as I am concerned, …
Example (Opinion Essay)
“Although the position of women in society today has improved, there is still a great deal of sexual discrimination.” Do you agree?
Throughout this century, the role of women within society has changed, and the majority of people feel that this change is for the better. More women work than ever before, and it is accepted in Western culture that many women now have careers. Nonetheless, in my opinion there is still a great deal of sexual equality has been achieved is not altogether accurate.
To begin with, many women find it very difficult to return to work after having children. The main reason for this is that there are rarely any provisions made for childcare in the workplace and, in these cases, women are forced to find someone to look after the children while they are at work. Obviously, this can prove to be a time-consuming and expensive process, yet it must be done if mothers are to be able to resume their careers.
Secondly, the traditional views of the position of women within society are so deeply ingrained that they have not really changed. For instance, not only is the view that women should stay at home and look after their family still widely held, but it is reinforced through images seen on television programmes and advertisements. An example of this is that few men are ever seen doing housework on television, since this is traditionally thought of as “a woman’s job”.
Thirdly, since families often need two incomes in order to enjoy a good standard of living, a woman finds herself doing two jobs: one at home and one at the office. So, it could be said that a woman’s position has, in fact, deteriorated rather than improved, with the result that women carry the burdens of equality but get none of the benefits.
In contrast, there are some people who claim that the problem of sexual discrimination no longer exists. They point out that women do, after all, have legal rights intended to protect them from discrimination. In addition, a few women are now beginning to reach top positions as judges, business leaders and politicians, while a number of other previously all-male professions are opening their ranks to women. Nonetheless, these examples are not the norm and discrimination is still very much with us.
Taking these points into consideration, I would say that the position of women has improved only slightly. While, rules and laws have changed, it is the deep-rooted opinions of people within society which are taking a longer time to evolve. Needless to say, until these attitudes have changed, sexual discrimination will remain a problem which we all need to face and fight against.
Essays Suggesting Solutions to Problems
An essay discussing problems and suggesting solutions is a formal piece of writing. You should state the problem and its causes clearly, then present your suggestions and the expected results or consequences these might have.
A successful essay of this type should consist of:
a) An introductory paragraph in which you clearly state the problem, what has caused it, and the consequences;
b) A main body in which you present several suggested solutions, each in a separate paragraph together with its consequences/results; and
c) A conclusion in which you summarise your opinion.
Points to consider
- Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence which summarises what the paragraph is about.
- Appropriate linking words and phrases should be used to show the connection between paragraphs as well as to link sentences within a paragraph.
State the problem and its cause(s)/consequence(s)
Suggestion 1 and result
Suggestion 2 and result
Suggestion 3 and result
Suggestion 4 and result (you may include more suggestions, and thus more paragraphs in the main body)
Summarise your opinion
- To express cause:
Since/ because, in view of/because of/owing to/due to (the fact that) …, The reason that …/why …/for … is that…
- To express effect:
Thus/therefore/so/consequently, as a result/consequence, the result of … would be …, …would result in …
- To express purpose:
So that …, so as/in order (not) to …, with the purpose of/intention of (+ ing)
- To express possibility/probability:
It can/could/may/might …,
It is possible/probable/(un)likely/foreseeable/certain that …, …is (un)likely to/bound to/certain to/possible/probable …,
The likelihood/possibility/probability of (-ing/noun) is …
Useful expressions: problems & solutions
so as to
Serious attempts to halt/prevent/solve … must be made.
the problem (of)…
|should focus their/ our attention
|to solve/overcome the problem of …
to improve the situation of …
to reduce the impact of … on society …
|If steps/measures were taken to …
If … happened/were to happen,
If attempts were made to address the problem
would be …
By (+ing) …, we/ government/etc, can ensure that / prevent …
The … situation could be improved if …/It would be a good idea if …
Example (Suggesting Solutions to Problems)
“What could be done to improve the lives of the elderly?”
For many elderly people the latter part of their life is not a time to relax and enjoy retirement, but rather a difficult and unhappy period, owing to financial worries, failing health and loneliness. As life expectancy increases, the average person lives well beyond the age of retirement. As a result, the elderly make up an ever-increasing percentage of society, which makes it more important than ever for a real effort to be made in improving the lives of senior citizens.
One way to deal with the situation would be to ensure that the elderly have enough money on which to live. Obviously, when a person stops working, they still require a source of income to cover their basic needs such as food, accommodation and heating. A clear solution to the problem is for the government to make sure that the state pension is adequate for these needs. Furthermore, free financial advice should be made available to retired people so that the stress of worrying about money could be reduced as far as possible.
Steps should also be taken to overcome problems the elderly face as a result of deteriorating health due to old age, and inadequate health-care provisions. Again, the responsibility should fall to the government to provide access to the best health care available, which may necessitate paying for residential homes where the elderly can have round-the-clock nursing, or, at the very least, providing medication free of charge to all people over a certain age. As a result, old people would enjoy not only better health, but also peace of mind from the knowledge that they need not fear falling ill and being unable to pay for treatment.
The lives of old people could also be improved if attempts were made to address the problem of social isolation which so many of them face. If we organised trips for the elderly to community centers, visits from social workers or free bus passes to allow pensioners greater mobility, the effect would be alleviate the problem of loneliness which marks the lives of so many old people living alone far from their families.
One final suggestion, which would help enormously, is to change the attitude of the community towards its older members, who are all too often seen as a burden on society and dismissed as having little to do with modern life. We need to be taught from an early age to respect the views of old people, and appreciate their broader experience of life. This would help society as a whole, and encourage appreciation of the role that old people can still play today.
To sum up, there are several measures which could be taken to improve the lives of old people. If the government and individuals alike were to help, it would make retirement and old age a time to look forward to, rather than dread.
Notes and useful language
• Thank you for/Many thanks for your (recent) letter/postcard.
• It was good/nice to hear from you recently.
• I'm sorry I haven't written/been in touch for such a long time:
• It's ages since I've heard from you. I hope you're well/you and your family are well.
• Thank you for/Many thanks for your (recent) letter/postcard.
• It was good/nice to hear from you recently.
• I'm sorry I haven't written/been in touch for such a long time:
• It's ages since I've heard from you. I hope you're well/you and your family are well.
• I look forward to/Looking forward lo hearing from/seeing you,
• See you soon/Write soon/Hope to hear from you soon
• Once again, thank you for all your help.
• Give my regards/love to ...
Say what you arc apologising for and give reasons to explain your behaviour. Try to suggest a way of putting things right, if possible,
• I'm writing to apologise for missing your party last week but I'm afraid I was in bed with flu.
• I'm really sorry that I forgot to send you a birthday card but I was so busy with my new job.
• If you let me know where you bought it/how much it cost, I'll gladly pay for it/replace it.
• Please let me know how much the bill is and I'll gladly pay it.
INVITATIONS - ACCEPTING/REJECTING
Say what the event is and give clear details of the date, time and place. It may be helpful to give other information such as how to get there, who else is coming and what (if anything) to bring. It is usual, too, to ask for confirmation:
• I'm/We're having a party on Friday 19th and I/we hope you'll be able to come.
• Would you like to come/go to see 'Room With a View' with me at the weekend?
• I was wondering if you'd like to go to the theatre/come on holiday with us?
• Could you let me/us know if you can come/you'd like to join us?
• Thank you very much for your invitation. I'd love to come
• Thank you for asking me/inviting me to... but I'm afraid I won't be able to come/join you because...
In some cases, you may want to introduce your request immediately. In others, you may prefer to begin your letter with some brief news before going on to make request. Either way, explain exactly what the request is, with reasons, and emphasise how grateful you would be for the help you are asking for:
• I'm writing to ask for your help/you (if you could do me a favour.
• I wonder if/I was wondering if you could help me/do me a favour.
• I hope you don't mind me asking but could you (possibly)...?
• I'd be very/really/terribly grateful if you could ...
THANK YOU/ CONGRATULATIONS/GOOD LUCK
When thanking someone for something, it is usual to say as much as possible about how useful/enjoyable/helpful it was. When offering congratulations for some success, you usually mention how well deserved it is. When wishing someone good luck, try to reassure them or offer some friendly advice:
• I'm writing to thank you for your hospitality/the wonderful present.
• It was so kind of you lo invite me to stay with you.
• I really appreciated all your help/advice.
• I wish you good luck/Good luck in/with your exams/your driving test/your interview
• Don't worry, I'm sure you'll do well/pass.
• Do be on time, won't you, and don't forget to...
• I thought you might be interested to hear about/know that...
• This is just to let you know that...
• By the way, have you heard about/did you know that ... ?
Write Dear + the person’s name, if you know it (Dear Mr Smith). If not, begin Dear Sir (for a man), Dear Madam (for a woman), or Dear Sir or Madam (if it could be either). Don’t use a title like Dear Manager.
In the first paragraph, clearly state your reason for writing, Use the middle paragraphs to explain the details, beginning a new paragraph for each main point. In the final paragraph, sum uo and/or say what action you want to be taken.
Don’t forget! If you began with a person’s name, e.g. Dear Mrs Blake, you must end with Yours sincerely, not Yours faithfully. These endings are followed by a comma.
First make it clear which job you are applying for, and mention where you saw the advertisement, and when. Give all the necessary information about yourself (including age, qualifications, past employment and other experience). Say why you are particularly interested in the job, and what you have to offer. Use a new paragraph for each main topic. It may also be useful to mention when you would be available for an interview:
• I was interested in the advertisement in (newspaper/magazine) on (date) and I would like to apply for the post/position of (job title)
• I am 21 years of age and I have a Diploma in Business Administration
My reason for applying is that I am interested in tourism and I would like to be able to use my foreign languages.
• I would be happy/able to attend an interview at any time which is convenient to you.
Explain why you are apologizing and what the reasons were for your behaviour. If possible, offer to make up in some way (e.g. paying for the damage) and/or promise that the problem won’t happen again:
• I am writing to apologise for the things I said at our last meeting/losing my temper.
• I would like to say how sorry I am about the trouble I have caused/that you were disturbed.
•The reason I missed the meeting was that my car broke down.
• Please let me know how much it cost and I will gladly replace it.
• I assure you that this will never happen again
State the subject of your complaint clearly in the first paragraph. Use the following paragraphs to give all the necessary details (including dates and times, the people involved, the inconvenience you’ve been caused, etc.). Try to be clear and factual rather than emotional. Use the final paragraph to say what action you want to be taken now:
• I am writing to complain about a holiday I booked with your company.
•I am writing to say that I am now satisfied with the standard of service at your restaurant.
• I must insist that you refund the cost of the bill.
•I must ask you to…
In the first paragraph, explain what information you need. If you are responding to an advertisement, mention where you saw this. Use extra paragraphs to mention any specific questions you would like answers to:
• I am writing to enquire about ….
• I was interested in your advertisement in ‘The Daily News’ and I would like to have further information about …
• I would be grateful if you could send me full details of …
• Could you send me your brochure/ catalogue?
• I look forward to hearing from you/receiving the information.
Introduce the topic and give details of any letter, article, book or TV programme you are responding to. Develop your argument in separate paragraphs and sum up in the final one:
• I strongly disagree with/I completely agree with Mr Smith’s letter, which appeared yesterday.
• I was interested to read the article on immigration in Monday’s edition of your newspaper but I don’t think it gave all the facts.
• I was interested/fascinated/amused/delighted to see/hear/read …
• I was horrified/shocked/disgusted to …
• in my opinion there is far too much violence in television dramas these days.
• in conclusion I feel/ I believe …