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Медкомиссия

Посольство направит вас на медицинское обследование (медкомиссию) прежде чем по вашему заявлению будет принято решение. Медкомиссия заключается в сдаче анализов крови, мочи; обследовании окулистом, терапевтом и снятии рентгена. Ее можно пройти за один день. Стоимость медицинского обследования ~USD$300. Медкомиссию проходят в одном из уполномоченных медицинских учреждений. Со списком этих учреждений можно ознакомиться на сайте Посольства Австралии в Москве: http://www.russia.embassy.gov.au.

В пакет из посольства будут вложены следующие бумаги:

  1. Письмо посольства о направлении на медицинское обследование
  2. Список медицинских учреждений
  3. Medical examination for an Australian visa form 26
  4. Radiological report on chest x-ray of an applicant for an Australian visa form 160
  5. Ваши фотографии (которые вы ранее приложили к общему пакету документов)

Письмо посольства о направлении на медобследование

AUSTRALIAN EMBASSY IMMIGRATION SECTION MOSCOW

НАПРАВЛЕНИЕ НА МЕДИЦИНСКОЕ ОБСЛЕДОВАНИЕ

НОМЕР ДЕЛА: 01/1234
ДАТА: 1 JUNE 2001

Уважаемый Mr Bounsha
В связи с Вашим заявлением на студенческую визу в Австралию, Вы и члены Вашей семьи, включенные в заявление, должны пройти медицинский осмотр. Целью медицинского осмотра является освидетельствование состояния Вашего здоровья, которое должно отвечать иммиграционным требованиям Австралии.

Пожалуйста, имейте в виду, что осмотр будет тщательным, и Вас попросят раздеться до нижнего белья. Обследование внутренних органов обычно не требуется. При себе необходимо иметь выписки из истории болезней, с указанием перенесенных Вами заболеваний (исключая незначительные заболевания) и записи о любой госпитализации. Эти документы должны быть предъявлены врачу, проводящему обследование (на русском языке). Мужчины должны иметь при себе военные билеты.

Возможно, что Вам потребуется пройти дополнительное медицинское обследование иили лечение до получения разрешения на въезд в Австралию. В этом случае Вам сообщат об этом письменно. Стоимость дополнительного обследования оплачивается Вами. В Ваших интересах пройти дополнительное обследование, если это будет необходимо. Список аккредитованных медицинских учреждений и приблизительных цен на услуги прилагается.

С уважением, Отдел Иммиграции

Вопросы формы 26

Общие рекомендации по прохождению медкомиссии

  • не пить спиртного по крайней мере за неделю до обследования
  • если есть лишний вес, в день перед обследованием пить меньше жидкости, так как это влияет на давление; остальным рекомендуется выпить побольше сока или поесть арбуза - положительно сказывается на результатах анализ мочи
  • чистота - залог здоровья, в данном случае - залог хороших результатов анализа мочи
  • анализ мочи не стоит делать в течение недели после окончания "праздничных" дней
  • рекомендуется половое воздержание в течение суток до прохождения обследования, это тоже влияет на результаты анализа мочи.

последние изменения вносились 30.11.09

Что такое эссе

 

Экзаменационные сведения

В эссе вам необходимо показать, что вы можете выразить свое мнение ясно, упорядоченно и интересно. На него отводится 40 минут. Типичные темы следующие:
  • the environment
  • technology
  • social problems
  • political issues
  • working environments
  • moral questions
  • education
  • health
  • the relationship between developed and developing countries
Для получения хороших баллов, следуйте следующей схеме
  • понимание вопроса
  • планирование ответа
Посетите ресурсную комнату за линками для новостей и журналов (the resource room). Читайте по одной или две статьи каждый день, что улучшит ваш английский и ваши общие знания. Обе эти вещи важны в IELTS.

понимание вопроса

экзаменационные сведения

Легко сказать - поймите, на самом деле многие делают здесь огромную ошибку. В IELTS, если вы начали писать неправильно, у вас не останется время поменять направление своей мысли – времени маловато – всего 40 минут!

Эссе обычно ставит решение следующих вопросов:
  • обсудить две или более стороны проблемы (например, преимущества и недостатки)
  • развить очень хорошо одну сторону проблемы
  • обсудить проблему и предложить решения
Здесь примеры для каждого типа вопросов:

Smoking is a habit which claims many lives and is a great drain on health services. One way to combat smoking would be to make it illegal. What are the pros and cons of such a government policy? What alternative strategies can you suggest to combat smoking? (понимание двух или более сторон проблемы)

"The best way to help developing countries is to give them financial aid." Write an essay either agreeing or disagreeing with this statement. Suggest alternatives to this policy.(развейте хорошо одну сторону проблемы)

The crime rate among teenagers has increased dramatically in many countries. Discuss some possible reasons for this increase and suggest solutions to this problem. (обсудите проблему и предложите решения)

Ежедневно практикуйтесь в написании эссе. Не забудьте о планировании своего ответа.

Спустя несколько недель,начните
ограничивать свое время 40 минутами
и откладывать ручку по истечении этого
времени. Вы сможете улучшить свое время, если будете следовать всем рекомендациям.

Обратите внимание, что эти вопросы имеют две части - предложения запротив.... причины и решения...
IELTS вопросы часто имеют более одной
части, так что вы ДОЛЖНЫ читать вопросы внимательно.

Чаще всего оказывается, что вопрос не так ясен. Попытайтесь решить, какой это тип вопроса:

"When teenagers under the age of 18 commit crimes, their parents should be held responsible." Write an essay discussing this statement and suggest ways to combat teenage crime.

Вы должны обсудить это предложение не более чем с двух точек зрения... Каковы преимущества и недостатки несения родителями ответственности? Каковы преимущества и недостатки несения ответственности подростками? Затем вы должны предложить пути преодоления подростковой преступности.

Обычно часто налицо имеется одна из следующих проблем:
  • у вас слишком много идей, так что эссе становится не упорядоченным и вы не можете до конца развить каждую из этих идей
  • у вас не хватает идей, поэтому эссе получается очень «тонким»
  • вы не читаете вопрос как следует, и поэтому отвечаете не по делу

Вам нужно тщательно спланировать ваше сочинение для преодоления этих проблем

Когда вы видете в постановке задачи
в эссе утверждение, попытайтесь
превратить утверждение в вопрос.
Это поможет вам начать формировать
свой ответ.

Вы можете изменить утверждение в этом примере на:
"Should parents be held responsible
when their children commit crimes?”

планирование ответа

экзаменационные сведения

Планирование эссе очень важно. Если у вас нет плана, ваше эссе будет неорганизованным и вам трудно будет выразить свою идею. Это преступление в IELTS! Сильные идеи и хорошая организация эссе будут влиять на ваш балл. В этой секции вы научитесь быстро генерировать идеи и ясно их упорядочивать. Поначалу вы можете для плана
уделять много времени. Если вы
будете интенсивно тренироваться,
скорость планирования будет увеличиваться.
1. Генерирование идей:

Взгляните на следующее утверждение:
"Action such as recycling cannot be left up to the good will of the individual. It must be forced on us by government." Обсудите это предложение и предложите, каким образом правительство может поощрить людей быть более осведомленными в проблемах окружающей среды.

Не забудьте заменить предложение на вопрос: "Should action such as recycling be left up to the good will of the individual or should it be forced on us by government?"

Посмотрите понимание вопроса, если вы забыли этот совет. Помните, что в этом вопросе 2 части – обсуждение и предложение.

Для генерирования идей задайте некоторые простые вопросы, используя вопросительные слова:
how
why
what
how much
where
who
и т.д.

Например:
  • How can the government force us to recycle?
  • Why should we recycle?
  • What are the disadvantages of government legislation to force people to recycle?
  • Why don't people recycle without government law?
  • Where do people recycle a lot?
  • How much should the government fine people who do not recycle?
  • Who should check if people are recycling? The police?
Попытайтесь ответить на эти
вопросы сами. Не пишите целые
предложения в своем плане,
только слова или фразы, помогающие вам помнить свои идеи.
Пишите на этом этапе подготовки к
эссе все свои идеи, даже если они
кажутся вам глупыми – они могут быть
использованы позже
2. Упорядочивание своих идей.

Теперь вам необходимо упорядочить свои идеи ясным и логическим образом. Вам также необходимо помнить, что вашей целью является 250 слов. Вам определенно необходимы введение и заключение, поэтому организовывать необходимо остальную часть сочинения. Так же как мы делаем это здесь, вы можете сделать это на экзамене, когда будете отвечать на простые вопросы.
Далее расположите идеи по логике следования. Наш план эссе выглядит так:

How can the government encourage/force us to recycle? 3
  • new laws
  • introduce fines
  • provide special collection services for different types of rubbish
  • promote recycling through a media campaign
  • teach children about recycling and environmental issues at school.

Why should we recycle? 1

  • too much rubbish - nowhere to put it
  • using up important resources too quickly
  • rubbish causes pollution, e.g. plastic which is not biodegradable
What are the disadvantages of government legislation to encourage/force people to recycle? 4
  • people wouldn't need to think about the environment - they just follow the law
  • may be an expensive policy
  • checking and fining people who don't recycle would be expensive to do, so the government might have to raise taxes to pay for it
How much should the government fine people who do not recycle? 3 - add to the other ideas above
  • High fines to make people do it.

Why don't people recycle without government law? 2

  • it's easier not to recycle - people are naturally lazy
  • people are not aware of environmental issues
Where do people recycle a lot? 5
  • Germany, for example.

Who should check if people are recycling? The police? 4

  • very difficult point - police are too busy
  • may be local council officials
Типичное IELTS эссе состоит из 4 или 5 параграфов:
- введение
- обсуждение одной стороны вопроса
- обсуждение другой стороны вопроса/ добавление аргументов
- в заключении вы можете написать свое собственное мнение

Номера показывают последовательность в эссе. Помните – есть только одно утверждение в хорошей последовательности. Возможны многие ответы. Вы можете иметь разные идеи в разной последовательности.Это конечно здорово, поскольку идеи сильны и сочинение упорядочено.

На этом этапе вы можете обнаружить,что у вас слишком много идей. Вы должны выбрать наиболее важные и полностью их обсудить. И лучше всего развить хорошо несколько идей,чем иметь список нераскрытых идей.

образец моделирования эссе

 

You should spend no more than 40 minutes on this task and write at least 250 words.Present a written argument or case to an educated reader with no specialist knowledge of the following topic.

Computer technology benefits modern society in many ways, but its disadvantages should not be overlooked. Discuss the dangers of computer technology.

Use your own idea, knowledge and experience to support your argument with examples and relevant evidence.
Не тратьте время на переписывание
названия на экзамене. Не забудьте посмотреть раздел Уложиться во время для эссе.
It is certainly true that communication has changed rapidly this century, particularly over the last few years. Even international contact, for example, can be made at the touch of a button using fax or e-mail. More and more people spend more and more time in front of computer screens, both at work and in their leisure time. Those who say that such technology has an entirely positive effect should ask themselves if there are any dangers or disadvantages to this new lifestyle. Этот тип вопроса для читателя в конце введения: "Those who say that....... should ask themselves if......"
Это очень хорошая структура предложения
– попытайтесь использовать это в своем собственном сочинении.
There are quite serious health consequences of a sedentary life in front of a computer - the most obvious being eye strain. Sitting at a computer screen for long periods of time is generally unhealthy, as the individual does not get any exercise. However, it is the social consequences that are the most alarming. The computer and the internet have made direct human contact less and less necessary. People have the illusion of community through the web, when in fact there is no such community. Nothing can replace real contact with real people in real streets. We contact people by e-mail because it is convenient to us - this is not the same as a natural relationship, which may be anything but convenient. We understand others only through what they write in e-mails, which is not the same as reading the subtle changes in emotion on a person's face. We may find in the future that people find human relationships too inconvenient and confusing, and prefer to stay with virtual friends rather than real ones. Обратите внимание, что автор говорит и
о будущем! Это одна из частей вопроса.

 

Раздел составлен по материалам сайта www.english-net.com.

 For & Against Essays

From the book "Successful Writing" pp.60-79 sent by Katya

A “for & against” essay is a formal piece of writing in which a topic is considered from opposing points of view. You should present both sides in a fair way by discussing them objectively and in equal detail.
A good essay of this type should consist of:

a) An introductory paragraph in which you clearly state the topic to be discussed, without giving your opinion;
b) A main body in which the points for & against along with your justifications, examples or reasons are presented in separate paragraphs; and
c) A closing paragraph in which you state your opinion or give a balanced consideration of the topic.

Note: Opinion words (I think, I believe, In my opinion, etc.) can only be used in the closing paragraph where you give your opinion on the topic.
 
Points to consider
 
 Before you start writing your essay you should make a list of the points for & against.
 Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence which summarises the topic of the paragraph.

e.g. In addition, many people feel reading is a relaxing and worthwhile activity.

Do not use informal style (e.g. short forms, colloquial language, etc.) or strong language to express your opinion (e.g. I know …, etc.). Express your opinion in a non-emotional way (e.g. It seems that, I therefore feel …, etc.). Well-known quotations relevant to the topic you are writing about will make your composition more interesting. For example, if you are writing an essay on education, a quotation you may include is: “Education is a progressive discovery of your own ignorance.” (Will Durant)

Note: Although these are balanced arguments, if you feel that either the for or against side is stronger and should be supported, this side should be presented in paragraphs 4 & 5, thus leading the reader to your conclusion.

Structure

Introduction
Paragraph 1
State topic (summary of the topic without giving your opinion)
Main body
Paragraphs 2 & 3
Arguments for and justifications, examples, and/or reasons
Paragraphs 4 & 5
Arguments against and justification, examples, and/or reasons
Conclusion
Final paragraph
Balanced consideration/ your opinion directly or indirectly
 
Useful expressions and kinking words/phrases

  • To list points:
    Firstly, First of all, In the first place, To begin/start with,
    Secondly, Thirdly, Finally
  • To list advantages:
    One/Another/A further/An additional (major) advantage of … is …
    The main/greatest/first advantage of … is … 
  • To list disadvantages:
    One/Another/A further/An additional (major) disadvantage/drawback of …
    The main/greatest/most serious/first disadvantage / drawback of …
    Another negative aspect of …
  • To introduce points/arguments for & against:
    One (very convincing) point/argument in favour of … / against …,
    A further common criticism of … / It could be argued that …,

    It is often
    widely
    generally
    claimed/suggested
    argued/maintained/
    felt/believe/held
    that …


    some/many/
    most people/experts/
    scientists/sceptics/
    critics
    claim/suggest/argue/feel that …
    maintain/believe/point out/agree/hold that …
       
      advocate (+ing/noun)/support the view that …
    oppose the view that …
       
      are in favour of/against …
    of the opinion that/convinced that …
    opposed to …
  • To add more points to the same topic:
    in addition (to this), furthermore, moreover, besides, apart from, what is more, as well as, not to mention (the fact) that, also, not only … but also/as well/both … and, There is another side to the issue/question/argument of…

To make contrasting points:

 

on the other hand, however, still, yet, but, nonetheless, nevertheless, even so, it may be said/argued/claimed that, …
others/
many people

oppose this viewpoint
(strongly) disagree …,
claim/feel/believe this argument is  incorrect/misguided


although, though, even though, while, whilst, whereas, despite/in spite of (the fact that), regardless of the fact that
 
Opponents of … argue/believe/claim that …
The fact that … contradicts the belief/idea that …
While it is true to say that …, in fact …
While/Although …, it cannot be denied that …
 
Example (For & Against Essay)

“Censorship is necessary in modern society”. Discuss.

Censorship is an issue which frequently generates a great deal of heated debate, with supporters maintaining that it is vital in order to protect society, whilst opponents claim that it is an unjustifiable restriction of public access to information.
Firstly, all countries have secrets which must be safeguarded for reasons of national security. For instance, if an enemy country were to acquire such highly sensitive information, the effects could be catastrophic. Consequently, governments have to have the power to restrict access to information concerning areas such as the armed forces or particular aspects of foreign policy.

Secondly, it is often argued that censorship is necessary to prevent the broadcast and publication of obscene material which is considered offensive or harmful to public morals. Many people feel that, without censorship the public would be constantly subjected to material that the majority would find offensive. For this reason, the government has a duty to impose certain restrictions on the mass media by censoring films and texts which contain explicit scenes of sex, violence or foul language.

In contrast, opponents of censorship point out that when it is abused by governments, censorship becomes an instrument used to misinform society and maintain power. In order to control the flow of information which riches the public, repressive regimes try to put constraints on the media, thus denying citizens the right to information owing to the fact that governments believe it may lead them to seek greater freedom.

Furthermore, it is generally felt that mature adults are able to make informed choices about what they watch, read and listen to and should, therefore, be permitted to make their own decisions. For example, some comedians make use of offensive language taboo subjects in their performances. Critics of censorship argue that the only people who will watch or listen to such material are adults who have made a conscious decision to do so. Thus, it is claimed, it is unjust to censor material like this since it is not forced upon people who may subsequently be offended by it.

All things considered, it can be concluded that a certain degree of censorship is always necessary. The best course of action would be to attempt to achieve a balance between the requirements of the country and the public on the one hand, and individuals’ rights on the other.
 
Opinion Essays

An opinion essay is a formal piece of writing. It requires your opinion on the topic, which must be stated clearly, giving various viewpoints on the topic supported by reasons and/or examples. You should also include the opposing viewpoint in another paragraph.

A successful opinion essay should have:
a)     An introductory paragraph in which you state the topic and your opinion.
b)     A main body which consists of several paragraphs, each presenting a separate viewpoint supported by reasons. You also include a paragraph presenting the opposing viewpoint and reason why you think it is an unconvincing viewpoint; and
c)      A conclusion in which you restate your opinion using different words.
 
Points to consider

  • Decide whether you agree or disagree with the subject of the topic, than make a list of your viewpoints and reasons.
  • Write well-developed paragraphs, joining the sentences with appropriate linking words and phrases. Do not forget to start each paragraph with a topic sentence which summarises what the paragraph is about.
  • Linking words and phrases should also be used to join one paragraph with the other.
     
    Structure
     
    Introduction
    Paragraph 1
    State the topic and your opinion clearly
    Main body
    Paragraph 2
    Viewpoint 1 and reason/example
    Paragraph 3
    Viewpoint 2 and reason/example
    Paragraph 4
    Viewpoint 3 and reason/example (you may include more viewpoints, and thus more paragraphs in the main body)
    Paragraph 5
    Opposing viewpoint and reason/example (you may include more viewpoints, and thus more paragraphs in the main body)
    Conclusion
    Final paragraph
    Summarise/restate opinion
     
    Useful expressions for giving opinions

To my mind/To my way of thinking, …
It is my (firm) belief/opinion/view/conviction (that) …

 

In my opinion/view …
I (firmly) believe …
I am (not) convinced that …
I (do not) agree that/with
It strikes me that
My opinion is that,
I (definitely) feel/think that …
I am inclined to believe that …
It seems/appears to me …
As far as I am concerned, …



Example (Opinion Essay)

“Although the position of women in society today has improved, there is still a great deal of sexual discrimination.” Do you agree?

Throughout this century, the role of women within society has changed, and the majority of people feel that this change is for the better. More women work than ever before, and it is accepted in Western culture that many women now have careers. Nonetheless, in my opinion there is still a great deal of sexual equality has been achieved is not altogether accurate.
To begin with, many women find it very difficult to return to work after having children. The main reason for this is that there are rarely any provisions made for childcare in the workplace and, in these cases, women are forced to find someone to look after the children while they are at work. Obviously, this can prove to be a time-consuming and expensive process, yet it must be done if mothers are to be able to resume their careers.

Secondly, the traditional views of the position of women within society are so deeply ingrained that they have not really changed. For instance, not only is the view that women should stay at home and look after their family still widely held, but it is reinforced through images seen on television programmes and advertisements. An example of this is that few men are ever seen doing housework on television, since this is traditionally thought of as “a woman’s job”.

Thirdly, since families often need two incomes in order to enjoy a good standard of living, a woman finds herself doing two jobs: one at home and one at the office. So, it could be said that a woman’s position has, in fact, deteriorated rather than improved, with the result that women carry the burdens of equality but get none of the benefits.

In contrast, there are some people who claim that the problem of sexual discrimination no longer exists. They point out that women do, after all, have legal rights intended to protect them from discrimination. In addition, a few women are now beginning to reach top positions as judges, business leaders and politicians, while a number of other previously all-male professions are opening their ranks to women. Nonetheless, these examples are not the norm and discrimination is still very much with us.

Taking these points into consideration, I would say that the position of women has improved only slightly. While, rules and laws have changed, it is the deep-rooted opinions of people within society which are taking a longer time to evolve. Needless to say, until these attitudes have changed, sexual discrimination will remain a problem which we all need to face and fight against.


Essays Suggesting Solutions to Problems

An essay discussing problems and suggesting solutions is a formal piece of writing. You should state the problem and its causes clearly, then present your suggestions and the expected results or consequences these might have.
A successful essay of this type should consist of:
a)     An introductory paragraph in which you clearly state the problem, what has caused it, and the consequences;
b)     A main body in which you present several suggested solutions, each in a separate paragraph together with its consequences/results; and
c)      A conclusion in which you summarise your opinion.
 
Points to consider
 
- Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence which summarises what the paragraph is about.
- Appropriate linking words and phrases should be used to show the connection between paragraphs as well as to link sentences within a paragraph.
 
Structure
 
Introduction
Paragraph 1
State the problem and its cause(s)/consequence(s)
Main body
Paragraph 2
Suggestion 1 and result
Paragraph 3
Suggestion 2 and result
Paragraph 4
Suggestion 3 and result
Paragraph 5
Suggestion 4 and result (you may include more suggestions, and thus more paragraphs in the main body)
Conclusion
Final paragraph
Summarise your opinion
 
Useful language

  •  To express cause:
    Since/ because, in view of/because of/owing to/due to (the fact that) …, The reason that …/why …/for … is that…
  • To express effect:
    Thus/therefore/so/consequently, as a result/consequence, the result of … would be …, …would result in …
  • To express purpose:
    So that …, so as/in order (not) to …, with the purpose of/intention of (+ ing)
  • To express possibility/probability:
    It can/could/may/might …,
    It is possible/probable/(un)likely/foreseeable/certain that …, …is (un)likely to/bound to/certain to/possible/probable …,
    The likelihood/possibility/probability of (-ing/noun) is …


Useful expressions: problems & solutions

 

Steps
Measures
should
must
could
be taken

so as to
in order to

 

solve/overcome/combat …
deal with/eradicate …

Serious attempts to halt/prevent/solve … must be made.

 

One (possible)
Another
An alternative

way to solve/overcome
combat/deal with
eradicate
this problem
the problem (of)…
would be/
is …

 

People
Governments
We
should focus their/ our attention
on ways
to solve/overcome the problem of …
to improve the situation of …
to reduce the impact of … on society …

    

 

If steps/measures were taken to …
If … happened/were to happen,
If attempts were made to address the problem
the effect/result/consequence
would be …

By (+ing) …, we/ government/etc, can ensure that / prevent …
The … situation could be improved if …/It would be a good idea if …
 

The effect/consequence
outcome/result
of (+noun/-ing) would
might
be … 


Example (Suggesting Solutions to Problems)

“What could be done to improve the lives of the elderly?”

For many elderly people the latter part of their life is not a time to relax and enjoy retirement, but rather a difficult and unhappy period, owing to financial worries, failing health and loneliness. As life expectancy increases, the average person lives well beyond the age of retirement. As a result, the elderly make up an ever-increasing percentage of society, which makes it more important than ever for a real effort to be made in improving the lives of senior citizens.

One way to deal with the situation would be to ensure that the elderly have enough money on which to live. Obviously, when a person stops working, they still require a source of income to cover their basic needs such as food, accommodation and heating. A clear solution to the problem is for the government to make sure that the state pension is adequate for these needs. Furthermore, free financial advice should be made available to retired people so that the stress of worrying about money could be reduced as far as possible.

Steps should also be taken to overcome problems the elderly face as a result of deteriorating health due to old age, and inadequate health-care provisions. Again, the responsibility should fall to the government to provide access to the best health care available, which may necessitate paying for residential homes where the elderly can have round-the-clock nursing, or, at the very least, providing medication free of charge to all people over a certain age. As a result, old people would enjoy not only better health, but also peace of mind from the knowledge that they need not fear falling ill and being unable to pay for treatment.
The lives of old people could also be improved if attempts were made to address the problem of social isolation which so many of them face. If we organised trips for the elderly to community centers, visits from social workers or free bus passes to allow pensioners greater mobility, the effect would be alleviate the problem of loneliness which marks the lives of so many old people living alone far from their families.

One final suggestion, which would help enormously, is to change the attitude of the community towards its older members, who are all too often seen as a burden on society and dismissed as having little to do with modern life. We need to be taught from an early age to respect the views of old people, and appreciate their broader experience of life. This would help society as a whole, and encourage appreciation of the role that old people can still play today.

To sum up, there are several measures which could be taken to improve the lives of old people. If the government and individuals alike were to help, it would make retirement and old age a time to look forward to, rather than dread.

Notes and useful language
 
BEGINNINGS
•   Thank you  for/Many thanks for your (recent) letter/postcard.
•   It was good/nice to hear from you recently.
•   I'm sorry I haven't written/been in touch for such a long time:
•   It's ages since I've heard from you. I hope you're well/you and your family are well.
 
ENDINGS
•   Thank you  for/Many thanks for your (recent) letter/postcard.
•   It was good/nice to hear from you recently.
•   I'm sorry I haven't written/been in touch for such a long time:
•   It's ages since I've heard from you. I hope you're well/you and your family are well.
 
ENDINGS
•   I look forward to/Looking forward lo hearing from/seeing you,
•   See you soon/Write soon/Hope to hear from you soon
•   Once again, thank you for all your help.
•   Give my regards/love to ...
 
APOLOGIES
Say what you arc apologising for and give reasons to explain your behaviour. Try to suggest a way of putting things right, if possible,
•   I'm writing to apologise for missing your party last week but I'm afraid I was in bed with flu.
•   I'm really sorry that I forgot to send you a birthday card but I was so busy with my new job.
•   If you let me know where you bought it/how much it cost, I'll gladly pay for it/replace it.
•   Please let me know how much the bill is and I'll gladly pay it.
 
INVITATIONS - ACCEPTING/REJECTING
Say what the event is and give clear details of the date, time and place. It may be helpful to give other information such as how to get there, who else is coming and what (if anything) to bring. It is usual, too, to ask for confirmation:
•   I'm/We're having a party on Friday 19th and I/we hope you'll be able to come.
•   Would you like to come/go to see 'Room With a View' with me at the weekend?
•   I was wondering if you'd like to go to the theatre/come on holiday with us?
•   Could you let me/us know if you can come/you'd like to join us?
•    Thank you very much for your invitation. I'd love to come
•  Thank you for asking me/inviting me to... but I'm afraid I won't be able to come/join you because...
 
REQUESTS
In some cases, you may want to introduce your request immediately. In others, you may prefer to begin your letter with some brief news before going on to make request. Either way, explain exactly what the request is, with reasons, and emphasise how grateful you would be for the help you are asking for:
•   I'm writing to ask for your help/you (if  you could do me a favour.
•   I wonder  if/I was wondering if  you could help me/do me a favour.
•   I hope you don't mind me asking but could you (possibly)...?
•  I'd be very/really/terribly grateful if you could ...
 
THANK YOU/ CONGRATULATIONS/GOOD LUCK
When thanking someone for something, it is usual to say as much as possible about how useful/enjoyable/helpful it was. When offering congratulations for some success, you usually mention how well deserved it is. When wishing someone good luck, try to reassure them or offer some friendly advice:
•   I'm writing to thank you for your hospitality/the wonderful present.
•    It was so kind of you lo invite me to stay with  you.
•   I really appreciated all your help/advice.
•   I wish you good luck/Good luck in/with your exams/your driving test/your interview
•   Don't worry, I'm sure you'll do well/pass.
•   Do be on time, won't you, and don't forget to...
 
NEWS/INFORMATION
•   I thought you might be interested to hear about/know that...
•  This is just to let you know that...
•  By the way, have you heard about/did you know that  ... ?
 
BEGINNING/ORGANISATION
Write Dear + the person’s name, if you know it (Dear Mr Smith). If not, begin Dear Sir (for a man), Dear Madam (for a woman), or Dear Sir or Madam (if it could be either). Don’t use a title like Dear Manager.
 
In the first paragraph, clearly state your reason for writing, Use the middle paragraphs to explain the details, beginning a new paragraph for each main point. In the final paragraph, sum uo and/or say what action you want to be taken.
 
ENDINGS
Don’t forget! If you began with a person’s name, e.g. Dear Mrs Blake, you must end with Yours sincerely, not Yours faithfully. These endings are followed by a comma.
 
JOB APPLICATIONS
First make it clear which job you are applying for, and mention where you saw the advertisement, and when. Give all the necessary information about yourself (including age, qualifications, past employment and other experience). Say why you are particularly interested in the job, and what you have to offer. Use a new paragraph for each main topic. It may also be useful to mention when you would be available for an interview:
• I was interested in the advertisement in (newspaper/magazine) on (date) and I would like to apply for the post/position of (job title)
• I am 21 years of age and I have a Diploma in Business Administration
My reason for applying is that I am interested in tourism and I would like to be able to use my foreign languages.
• I would be happy/able to attend an interview at any time which is convenient to you.
 
APOLOGIES
Explain why you are apologizing and what the reasons were for your behaviour. If possible, offer to make up in some way (e.g. paying for the damage) and/or promise that the problem won’t happen again:
• I am writing to apologise for the things I said at our last meeting/losing my temper.
• I would like to say how sorry I am about the trouble I have caused/that you were disturbed.
•The reason I missed the meeting was that my car broke down.
• Please let me know how much it cost and I will gladly replace it.
• I assure you that this will never happen again
 
COMPLAINTS
State the subject of your complaint clearly in the first paragraph. Use the following paragraphs to give all the necessary details (including dates and times, the people involved, the inconvenience you’ve been caused, etc.). Try to be clear and factual rather than emotional. Use the final paragraph to say what action you want to be taken now:
• I am writing to complain about a holiday I booked with your company.
•I am writing to say that I am now satisfied with the standard of service at your restaurant.
• I must insist that you refund the cost of the bill.
•I must ask you to…
 
ENQUIRIES
In the first paragraph, explain what information you need. If you are responding to an advertisement, mention where you saw this. Use extra paragraphs to mention any specific questions you would like answers to:
• I am writing to enquire about ….
• I was interested in your advertisement in ‘The Daily News’ and I would like to have further information about …
•  I would be grateful if you could send me full details of …
• Could you send me your brochure/ catalogue?
• I look forward to hearing from you/receiving the information.
 
OPINION
Introduce the topic and give details of any letter, article, book or TV programme you are responding to. Develop your argument in separate paragraphs and sum up in the final one:
• I strongly disagree with/I completely agree with Mr Smith’s letter, which appeared yesterday.
• I was interested to read the article on immigration in Monday’s edition of your newspaper but I don’t think it gave all the facts.
• I was interested/fascinated/amused/delighted to see/hear/read …
• I was horrified/shocked/disgusted to …
• in my opinion there is far too much violence in television dramas these days.
• in conclusion I feel/ I believe …

Письма являются важнейшей формой средства общения. В General Training Task 1 вам дается ситуация и тестируется ваша возможность писать письма в соответствующем стиле для того, чтобы достичь определенного результата. Вам необходимо включить все необходимые детали, чтобы цель вашего письма была ясна и читатель мог легко понять ваше сообщение.

Деловые письма

Составление и написание формального письма требует соблюдения определенных правил. Прежде всего это касается правильного расположения адреса, обращения и т.д. Кроме того, необходимо использовать определенные фразы вежливости. Если письмо будет написано не по правилам, оно будет воспринято менее серьезно и, возможно, оскорбит, огорчит или введет в заблуждение вашего корреспондента. Приведенное ниже письмо демонстрирует, как следует правильно оформить деловое письмо. Ниже приведены комментарии к письму.

1. Open Door School of English
2. Rua Boa Morte 2181;
13400-140 Piracicaba
;
Est. De Sao Paulo Brazil

tel (0194)22-3487

4. The Manager
5 .Boatrace International Bookshop

37 Morse Avenue
OXFORD 0X3 3DP

6. 24 August 1996

7. Dear Sir or Madam
8. On 23 June I ordered 16 copies of 'in at the Deep End' by Vicki Hollett. to be sent to me at the above address.
9. Two months later, these books have not yet been received.
10.I would be grateful if you could look Into this matter and ensure that the books reach me as soon as possible.
11. Yours faithfully
12. Сеlia silveira Coelho
13. CELIA SILVEIRA COELHO
14. Director
15.

План делового письма

  1. Ваш адрес, но не ваше имя. 
  2. Если вы пишете от руки, убедитесь в том, что адрес написан разборчиво. 
  3. Возможно, необходимо сообщить ваш номер телефона. 
  4. Имя человека, которому вы пишете письмо (если вы его знаете), за которым следует его служебное положение. 
  5. Адрес человека/компании, которому/которой вы пишете письмо. 
  6. Дата. 
  7. В случае если вы не знаете имени человека, которому пишете, вы можете воспользоваться следующими обращениями: Dear Sir, Dear Madam, Dear Sir or Madam, Dear Sir/Madam.
    Если вы знаете имя, используйте его. Но убедитесь в том, что оно написано правильно. В таком случае пишите: Dear Mr Blair (никогда не пишите Mister); Dear Mrs Peacock (замужняя женщина); Dear Miss Ball (незамужняя женщина); Dear Ms Metcalfe (женщина, не желающая сообщать о своем семейном положении, или чье семейное положение вам неизвестно); Dear Mr and Mrs Bessin. Если у вашего корреспондента имеется какое-то другое звание, титул, используйте его: Dear Dr Jekill, Dear Professor Heger. 
  8. Ссылка. Это предложение должно точно сообщать вашему адресату, о чем вы пишете. Если вы отвечаете на письмо, упомяните дату того письма. 
  9. Содержание/суть вашего письма.
  10. Описание того, какого рода ответ вы ожидаете от вашего адресата. 
  11. Письмо завершают фразой Yours sincerely, если вы начинали с имени: Dear Mr Smith: Yours faithfully, если вы не знали имени адресата: Dear Sir or Madam. 
  12. Ваша подпись всегда должна быть написана от руки. 
  13. Ваше имя прописными буквами, если вы пишете от руки. Оно должно быть разборчиво, поскольку это единственное место, где оно написано: оно не пишется ни в верхней части письма, ни на обратной стороне конверта. 
  14. Ваше положение пишется только в том случае, если вы составляте письмо от имени компании/фирмы и т.д. 
  15. Здесь вы можете написать: Enc or Encs (далее следует список приложений — документов, которые вы высылаете вместе с письмом).

Письмо-жалоба (или запрос)

Цель письма-жалобы (по поводу продуктов, сервиса, доставки и пр.) не просто выразить свое негодование, а получить компенсацию или потребовать выполнения обязательств.

План письма
  1. Объясните, по какому поводу вы жалуетесь.1 или 2 предложения: " Я пишу это письмо, чтобы проинформировать вас о... " и суть проблемы, опираясь на фактический материал (номер счета, дата, сумма, номер договора, страховки и т.д
    I am writing with regard/reference to/in connection with …
    I am writing to express my concern/dissatisfaction about …
    I would like to draw your attention to …
    I am writing to you to complain about the service:
    I am writing to you with reference to the above trip, which you organized.
    I have received your invoice No 1234-BA for $3456 but noticed that a number of errors have been made. 
  2. Объяснения причин вашей жалобы: обещали одно, а получил другое, т.е. сравнение обещанных и реальных обязательств. В этой части письма больше всего шансов набрать необходимое кол-во слов. 
    Unfortunately, the reality was very different.
    I regret to inform you that:
    We regret to inform you that we were no at all satisfied with your service.
     
  3. Можете выразить свои чувства по поводу происшедшего, предположить причины, которые вызвали данную проблему.
    You can imagine my disappointment when I discovered:
    You can imagine our feelings when we realized that this would mean:

    I can suppose that the your partner in Santo Paulo
  4. Если это уместно, опишите Ваши собственные действия, которые Вы предприняли, чтобы решить возникшую проблему.
    I have tried to contact you by phone but could get anyone who knew anything about this matter.
    We enclose a report on the damage from:
    I contacted your account representative in Bank, but unfortunately without any success.
     
  5. Изложите, что вы хотите в результате получить.
    The best solution would be for me to return the wrong items to you, postage and package forward.
    We must insist on receiving our prior payment:
    I should therefore like to have my money refunded.
    Therefore I look forward to hearing your comments.
    We would be interested to know if you can offer an explanation for this poor quality of your service.
     
  6. Сообщите о мерах, которые будут предприняты в том случае, если Ваши требования не будут удовлетворены.
    We will keep the goods until:
    Unless you can fulfill our orders efficiently in the future, we will have to consider other sources of supply
    .
  7. Стандартное окончание письма
    I look forward for hearing from you,
    Подпись, имя

По такой же схеме можно написать и письмо-запрос.

Письмо-заявление о приеме на работу

 

План письма-заявления

  1. Объясните повод, по которому вы пишете - заявление на вакантную должность (название должности должно быть указано точно). Сошлитесь на источник информации, где вы видели эту рекламу или откуда узнали о вакансии.

    I am writing to you in replay to your advertising in 'Daily Telegraph' of April 2003 concerning the Vice-President position of you company.
    Please accept this letter as application for the Senior Marketing Manager position currently advertised in the 'Daily Telegraph' of April 2003:
    I would like to apply for the Head of the Financial Department position advertised in The Russian Financial News of July 1, 2003
    I am responding to your advertisment in____ for a ______ position: ...
    I wish to apply for the job of... which was advertised In today's 'Daily Telegraph'.
    With reference to your advertisement in the 'Guardian' of January 5th, I should like to apply for the position of...


    Вы также можете написать, что вы пишете по совету коллеги (друга), который посоветовал вам обратиться в данную компанию по поводу трудоустройства. Начало письма в этом случае может быть таким:
    I met Mr. Ivanov, Senior Vice-President of your company at the last meeting in Moscow and he strongly recommended that I send you copy of my resume.
  2. Кратко опишите вашу квалификацию и опыт.

    Five years experience in every aspect of the immobility market in Moscow and Russia. 
    I offer more then ten years of business experience in marketing and sales of food
    As you will see from my enclosed CV, I have four years' experience in hotels and catering.
    At present I am employed as a... by the local Tourist Office, a position I have held for three years.
    In the course of my present job, I have been responsible for the planning and organization of...
    My duties have included secretarial work as well as...
    I graduated in Business Administration from Dundee University in 1996.
    I was employed as a cashier with Barclays Bank from 1995 to 1999.
    I attended the Lycee Paul Bert, where I obtained the baccalauriat in 1995.
    During my apprenticeship I obtained practical training In all aspects of the catering trade
    .
    I am used to working under pressure / working to a deadline / working as part of a team.
    I am familiar with Word for Windows/recent developments in the industry...
    I also have some knowledge of accountancy, having kept the books for my father's business
    ..
  3. Объясните, почему вы заинтересованы в этой работе. Составленное вами заявление должно производить впечатление уверенности и заинтересованности; проявите свою высокую мотивацию занять вакантную должность и внести свой вклад в успех компании.

    I believe the post you offer will give me the opportunity to...
    I feel that my present position offers little prospect of promotion.
    I am especially keen to work in an organisation such as yours which has a reputation for...
    I am interested in a accounting manager position within your company where my abilities and qualifications can be fully applied for our mutual benefits.
  4. Укажите вашу готовность приехать на интервью для выснения остальных важных деталей.
    I welcome an opportunity to meet with you and to discuss my abilities and qualification.
    I look forward to schedule an interview at your earliest convenience to learn more about your corporation and how I coild contribute to its continued sucess.

    I would welcome the opportunity to discuss my credentials in a personal interview.
  5. Поблагодарите сотрудника отдела кадров за труд рассмотрения вашего пакета.
    Thank you for your time and consideration.
    Thank you for your time.
  6. Стандартное окончание письма.
    Yours truly,/Sincerely yours,/Sincere regards,/Very truly yours,
    Подпись

Личные письма

В случае личных писем нет никаких ограничений на тему, тон и стиль письма.

Варианты обращения
Dear Amanda and dear Nike
Dear Mr Smith and Mrs Smiths
My dear Amanda Smith, dear Amanda, darling Amanda, my dearest


Начальные фразы письма
I'm writing to (thank/ tell/ ask/ congratulate/ apologize/ etc.)
I'm writing to thank you very much for the nice post card:
I'm writing to tell you that we are going to be in Perth during Christmas time:


Варианты подписи
With best wishes, Nelly
With kind regards (from us both), Nelly
With our best wishes to you all, Nelly
Yours sincerely, Nelly
With my best wishes for today, and every day, Nelly
With sincerely sympathy, Nelly
Meanwhile all the best, Nelly
Yours, Nelly
With all good wishes to yourself,
Yours affectionately, Nelly.
With love and very many thanks from me,
Nelly
Cordially yours, Nelly

 

 

Структуры, которые помогут при написании писем:

 

Dissatisfaction/dislike

Regret/apology

Needs/wants/desires

I am unhappy about/do not like …

I am not comfortable about/with …

is not what I expected/was expecting.
… does not suit me/may needs.

… is too + adjective

I’m sorry that I …

I regret that I …

Please accept my apologies for … ing.
Please forgive me for …

Unfortunately/Regrettably I …

What I am looking for is …

What would suit me best is …

I am very keen to …

I would very much like to …

I would be grateful if you could.

Gratitude

Annoyance

Pleasure/satisfaction

Although I stated that …

Despite my request for …

Even though I telephoned you about …
Although I stated that …

Despite my request for …

Even though I telephoned you about …
I was delighted about/by …

I thoroughly enjoyed …

… was very impressive/enjoyable.

последние изменения 14.03.03

темы от сдавших экзамен

  1. Некоторые родители считают что дети должны в свободное время играть только в развивающие игры (educational) иначе они впустую тратят свое время. Вы согласны или нет?
  2. Почему в последнее время семьи становятся не такими close?
  3. Кто в ответе за пожилых людей.
  4. Что такое воспитание детей. (точной формулировки я уже не помню, но смысл такой.)
  5. Некоторые родители считают что дети должны в свободное время играть только в развивающие игры (educational) иначе они впустую тратят свое время. Вы согласны или нет?
  6. Рассуждение о том, почему школьники испытывают большие трудности в их первый день в high school или college.
  7. В последнее время стали очень популярны мыльные оперы. Некоторые считают что они уводят зрителей от проблем их реальной жизни, другие полагают, что наоборот помогают им в жизни. Ваше мнение - за или против.
  8. Почему сейчас, в повседневной жизни, люди не носят национальную одежду?
  9. Кто должен быть наказан за совершение преступления несовершеннолетним - он сам или родители?
  10. Должны ли благополучные страны помогать развивающимся?
  11. Роль музыки в жизни человека
  12. Предложите методы борьбы с курением.
  13. Agree/disagree с ужесточением контроля над рекламой и ее воздействием на детей
  14. Traffic становится все интенсивнее (растет объем), опишите проблемы с ним связанные и пути решения в Вашей стране.
  15. Есть мнение, что для достойного воспитания детей надо, чтобы один из родителей сидел дома. Что вы об этом думаете?
  16. Как должно приниматься решение о будущей карьере молодого человека? Чьи мнения и какую информацию при этом надо учитывать? Напишите свое мнение и примеры, относящиеся к проблеме.
  17. Надо ли школьникам до 17 лет давать специальные предметы в школе наряду с общими, мол они же еще маленькие, чтобы определиться в выборе своей будущей специальности. Приведите Ваше мнение и примеры.
  18. В последнее время телесериалы очень популярны. Причины в том, что реальные общины (real community and neighborhood) перестали существовать сейчас. Обсудите.
  19. Многие считают, что первые несколько лет в жизни ребенка - есть самые важные годы, от которых зависит формирование личности человека. Другие, впрочем, считают наиболее важными первые несколько лет после окончания школы. Каково ваше мнение. Обоснуйте.
  20. Некоторые люди считают, что высокая зарплата, это главная сторона работы. Для других важно удовлетворение от работы и чувство значимости для общества. Обсудить, добавить, что важно для вас, привести примеры.
  21. Some governments say how many children a family can have in their country. They may control the number of children someone has through taxes. It is sometimes necessary and right for a government to control the population in this way. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer.
  22. Не лучше ли семьям с детьми жить за городом, а не в пыльном городе.
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