- дан график статистики по частоте посещений ресторанов людьми в разных странах за последние 15 лет. Описать, сделать выводы.
- даны 3 графика по 5 разным странам, с информацией о том, кто сколько получает. Описать, сделать выводы.
- описать график изменения уровня преступности в США
- проанализировать bar chart по поводу посещения ресторанов в странах: Япония, США и Россия за период с 1960 по наше время.
- дана табличка с тремя цифрами для каждой из пяти стран - процент безработных в 1985, 1987 и 1992 годах - Australia, Japan, Belgium, France, Canada. Просят описать.
- 22.09.02. Москва. Описать два pie chart`а, где дана информация о male & female employees at a Canadian company in 1999. Pie chart представляет из себя кружок в котором отмечено какую часть его в процентах занимает часть non-skilled, skilled, semi-skilled & high-skilled. Два чарта каждый для одного пола.
- 23.09.02. Любляна. Дали график с данными по потреблению газа, нефти и угля за последние 50 лет. Проанализировать.
- 11-Jan-2003, Arlington, USA. Describe and comment on a graph that presents percentage of women in different countries employed in government posts and parliament.
- 17/01/03, Sydney. Два Pie Charts, показывающие как молодежь проводит свободное время (ТВ, Игры, общение и т.п. в %) на 1981 и на 2001 годы. Подготовить доклад по этому материалу 150 слов.
- 15/01/03. Мельбурн. Описать график рента и продажи видеокассет в европейских странах и в Америке за последние 20 лет. Четыре ломаные кривые: в Америке все предпочитают брать кассеты в рент и почти не покупают, а в Европе наоборот.
- 31/01/03. Sydney. Дана столбчатая диаграмма высадки твердоствольных и мягкоствольных деревьев в Новом Южном Уэльсе за последние 10 лет. Нужно было ее описать.
- 15/03/03. Брисбан.Диаграма выдачи патентов на изобретения резидентам и не резидентам в США, Бразилии,Кении и Японии. Вторая диаграмма количества заявлений на патенты с 1995 по 1999 по миру.
- 30/03/03. Москва. Дана табличка с двумя странами бассейна индийского океана - Madagascar and Mauritius (or da like) - цифры по surface, population, GNP (gross national product), population growth, education (primary, secondary) - Вывод мадагаскар такой бальшой и такой отсталый - мавритиус такой маленький такой продвинутый
- 03/05/03. Describe a graph on "softwood n hardwood plantation in New South Wales in Australia during the year period from 1990 to 1998 n the graph was given so it was very simple.
- 11/05/03. Riyadh. Table describing the number of people living in UK who live more than 100 years of age. The table statistics was for 1911, 1941, 1971 and 2001
- 01/06/03. A table with figures about the number of people older than 100 years old in the UK, by sex, from 1911 to 2001. The table only had 15 figures, at it was not difficult at all.
- 08/06/03. Flow chart showing the ragwort of a forest after fire at new yellow------------USA. There were six pic
1-normal forest with small and large dense trees
2-burnt trees and debris, nourishment of soil
3-regrowth of new plants-same size(0-50yrs)
4-plants reaches optimum size-all of same size (50-150 yrs)
5-new seedling and second generation of plants (150-300 yrs)
6-same as 1st picture
- 14/06/03. Академ. Первый: сравнение молодых, которые учебу связывают с карьерой и пожилых, которые учаться в основном для интереса. Второй график: поддержкой спонсоров и работодателей больше пользуються молодые чем пожилые.
- 23/06/03.Ташкент (Academic) приведена таблица с экономическими показателями двух островов находящихся в Индийском океане: численность граждан, ВНП на душу населения, площадь и уровень грамотности жителей;
- 27/08/03. Питер. Дана таблица с информацией по поводу кол-ва людей, доживших до 100 лет в UK – мужчины, женщины и общее в 1911, 1941, 1971 и 2001 годах. В общем, элементарное задание.
- 20/09/03. Таунсвиль. Австралия. Академик. задание: не график, таблица или «пирожок», а карта какого-то воображаемого городка, где товарищи строители хотят воздвигнуть супермаркет, и у них есть 2 варианта (Крупский и Делчев) его местоположения. На карте схематично изображен город без подробностей в виде домов, но разными оттенками черного обозначены сити, жилая часть, промышленная часть и кантри. Обозначены 3 главные магистрали и железная дорога, расстояния до 3 ближайших городков (более мелких) и собственно два варианта постройки – S1 и S2.
- 7/12/03. Тель-Авив. График: описание заработка в течение жизни среди мужчин, женщин без детей и женщин с детьми в одном из регионов UK
SECTION 1 Questions 1-13
Look at the three restaurant advertisements on the following page. Answer the questions below be writing the letters of the appropriate restaurants (A-C) in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
Example It stops serving lunch at 2.30 pm Answer B
- It is open for breakfast.
- It is open every night for dinner.
- It is only open for lunch on weekdays.
- It has recently returned to its previous location.
- It welcomes families.
- It caters for large groups.
- It only opens at weekends.
Luigi's Italian Restaurant
is now back in Aboyne (sample parking available)
Luncheon 12 to 3 pm
Dinner 6 to 10 pm
TUESDAY TO SUNDAY
Entress $5.50 Mains $8.00
Free ice cream for the kids
Up to 120 people
Reservations: Phone 9763 3501
Italian & Seafood Cuisine
Tuesday - Friday
12 noon - 2.30 pm
6.00 pm - 11.30 pm
Tel & Fax: 9784 1234
54 Shore Street
CRUISING BOAT CLUB
Breakfast by the water
Saturday & Sunday
8.00 am to 11.00 am
Cruising Boat Club
The Quay, Gateside
Read the information given in ‘New Electricity Account Payment Facilities’ on the following page and look at the statements below (Questions 8-13).
In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet write
TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
Example You must pay your account by mail.
- If you want a receipt, you should send your payment to the Southport address.
- You may pay your account at branches of the Federal Bank
- You must pay the full amount, instalments are not permitted.
- The Coastside Power Office is open on Saturday mornings.
- You may pay your account by phone using your credit card.
- There is a reduction for prompt payment.
NEW ELECTRICITY ACCOUNT PAYMENT FACILITIES
AVAILABLE FROM 1 JULY 1998
After 1 July 1998, you may pay your electricity account in any of the following ways:
1. Payments via mail:
(A) No receipt required:
Mail payments to:
Locked Bag 2760
Southport NSW 3479
(B) Receipt required:
Mail payments to:
PO Box 560
Northbridge NSW 3472
2. Agency payments (payments directly to the bank):
Payments can be made at any branch of the Federal Bank by completing the deposit slip attached to your account to your account notice.
NB: This facility is no longer available at South Pacific Bank branches.
3. Payments directly to Coastside Power Office:
Payments can be made directly to Coastside Power Office at 78-80 Third Avenue, Northbridge. Office hours are Monday to Friday, 8.30 am to 4.30 pm.
Payment may be by personal cheque, bank cheque or cash.
Note: Payments cannot be made by phone.
SECTION 2 Questions 14-26
Read the passage about personal computers on the following page and look at the statements below (Questions 14-20). In boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet write
TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
- There are two computers and two printers available for public use at the library.
- You can buy floppy dicks at the information desk.
- The information desk is closed at weekends.
- It is essential to reserve a computer three days in advance if you want to use one.
- If you are more than a quarter of an hour late, you could lose your reservation for the computer.
- Library employees do not have detailed knowledge of computers.
- The library runs courses for people who want to learn about computers.
PERSONAL COMPUTERS AVAILABLE FOR PUBLIC TO USE
- 2 personal computers are available, for a fee of $5.00. There is also an ink jet printer attached to each terminal. The library has a number of commercially available programs for word processing and spreadsheets.
- A4 paper can be bought from the desk if you wish to print your work. Alternatively you can bring your own paper. If you wish to store information however, you will need to bring your own floppy disk.
Because of high demand, a maximum of one hour’s use per person per day is permitted. Bookings may be made up to three days in advance. Bookings may be made in person at the information desk of by phoning 8673 8901 during normal office hours. If for some reason you cannot keep your appointment, please telephone. If the library is not notified and you are 15 minutes late, your time can be given to someone else.
Please sign in the visitor’s book at the information desk when you first arrive to use the computer. Please note that staff are not available to train people or give a lot of detailed instruction on how to use the programs. Prior knowledge is, therefore, necessary. However, tutorial groups are available for some of the programs and classes are offered on a regular basis. Please see the loans desk for more information about our computer courses.
The text on Atlas English Language College on the following page has seven paragraphs (A-G). Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-G from the list of headings below. Write the appropriate numbers (i-ix) in boxes 21-26 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use all of them.
List of Headings
i Recognition of your achievements
ii Courses start every week
iii Other services/Pastoral care/Personal arrangements
iv A personal approach
v Two meals every day
vi First-class staff
vii Up-to-date classroom practice
viii Discovering a new language
ix Monitored achievement
Example Paragraph A
- Paragraph B
- Paragraph C
- Paragraph D
- Paragraph E
- Paragraph F
- Paragraph G
On an English course with Atlas English Language College, you improve your language skills and make friends from all over the world!
A Because Atlas courses start every Monday of the year, there’s bound to be one that fits in with your academic, personal or professional commitments. Whatever your level of language ability, from beginner to advanced, you can choose to study for any length of time, from two weeks to a full year. Courses match a range of individual requirements, from intensive examination preparation to short summer programmes. Most courses commence at 9 am and run till 3 pm.
B If you take an intensive full-time course, we will help you to select the Special Interest Options which best suit your goals. From then on, our teacher will discuss your work with you on a weekly basis. This means that you should develop the language skills you need – and that you are helped to study at your own pace.
C The popularity and success of any language school depend greatly on the quality of the teachers and the methods and the methods they employ. All Atlas teachers have specialist qualifications in the teaching of English to foreign students and are all native speakers. We employ only experienced professionals with a proven record of success in the classroom.
D Atlas’s teaching methodology is constantly revised as more is discovered about the process of learning a new language. Our teachers have access to an extensive range of materials, including the very latest in language teaching technology.
E On your first day at school, you will take a test which enables our Director of Studies to place you at the appropriate study level. Your progress will be continuously assessed and, once you have achieved specific linguistic goals, you will move up to a higher level of study.
F Every Atlas course fee includes accommodation in carefully selected homestay families. Breakfast and dinner each day are also included, so you need have no concerns about having to look for somewhere to live once you get to the school.
G On completion of any Intensive, Examination or Summer course, you will receive the Atlas Course Certificate of Attendance. On completion of a four-week course or longer you will also receive the Atlas Academic Record that reflects your ability in every aspect of the language from conversation to writing. Such a record will allow you to present your linguistic credentials to academic institutions or potential employers around the world.
SECTION 3 Questions 27-40
The Reading Passage on the following pages has seven paragraphs (A-G). Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs A-B and D-G from the list of headings below. Write the appropriate numbers (i-ix) in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet. NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use all of them.
List of Headings
i Robots working together
ii Preparing LGVs for take-over
iii Looking ahead
iv The LGVs’ main functions
v Split location for newspaper production
vi Newspaper superseded by technology
vii Getting the newspaper to the printing centre
viii Controlling the robots
ix Beware of robots!
Example Paragraph C Answer ix
- Paragraph A
- Paragraph B
- Paragraph D
- Paragraph E
- Paragraph F
- Paragraph G
A The newspaper production process has come a long way from the old days when the paper was written, edited, typeset and ultimately printed in one building with the journalists working on the upper floors and the printing presses going on the ground floor. These days the editor, subeditors and journalists who put the paper together are likely to find themselves in a totally different building or maybe even in a different city. This is the situation which now prevails in Sydney. The daily paper is compiled at the editorial headquarters, known as the pre-press centre, in the heart of the city but printed far away in the suburbs at the printing centre. Here human beings are in the minority as much of the work is done by automated machines controlled by computers.
B Once the finished newspaper has been created for the next morning’s edition, all the pages are transmitted electronically from the pre-press centre to the printing centre. The system of transmission is an update on the sophisticated page facsimile system already in use on many other newspapers. At image-setter at the printing centre delivers the pages as film. Each page takes less than a minute to produce, although for colour pages four versions are used, one each for black, cyan, magenta and yellow. The pages are then processed into photographic negatives and the film is used to produce aluminum printing plates ready for the presses.
C A procession of automated vehicles is busy at the new printing centre where the Sydney Morning Herald is printed each day. With lights flashing and warning horns honking, the robots (to give them their correct name, the LGVs or laser-guided vehicles) look for all the world like enthusiastic machines from a science-fiction movie, as they follow their own random paths around the plant busily getting on with their jobs. Automation of this kind is now standard in all modern newspaper plants. The robots can detect unauthorized personnel and alert security staff immediately if they find an ‘intruder’ and not surprisingly, tall tales are already being told about the machines starting to take on personalities of their own.
D The robot’s principle job, however, is to shift the newsprint (the printing paper) that arrives at the plant in huge reels and emerges at the other end some time later as newspapers. Once the size of the day’s paper and the publishing order are determined at head office, the information is punched into the computer and the LGVs are programmed to go about their work. The LGVs collect the appropriate size paper reels and take them where they have to go. When the press needs another reel its computer alerts the LGV system. The Sydney LGVs more busily around the press room fulfilling their two key functions – to collect reels of newsprint either from the reel stripping stations or from the racked supplies in the newsprint storage area. At the stripping station the tough wrapping that helps to protect a reel of paper from rough handling is removed. Any damaged paper is peeled off the reel is then weighed.
E Then one of the four paster robots moves in. Specifically designed for the job, it trims the paper neatly and prepares the reel for the press. If required, the reel can be loaded directly onto the press. If not needed immediately, an LGV takes it to the storage area. When the press computer calls for a reel, an LGV takes it to the reel-loading area of the presses. It lifts the reel onto the loading position and places it in the correct spot with complete accuracy. As each reel is used up, the press drops the heavy cardboard core into a waste bin, and when the bin is full, another LGV collects it and deposits the cores into a shredder for recycling.
F The LGVs move at walking speed. Should anyone step in front of one or get too close, sensors stop the vehicle until the path is clear. The company has chosen a laser-guide function system for the vehicles because, as the project development manager says, ‘The beauty of it is that if you want to change the rotes, you can work out a new route on your computer and lay it down for them to follow.’ When an LGV’s batteries run low, it will take itself off line and go to the nearest battery maintenance point for replacement batteries. And all this is achieved with absolute minimum human input and a much reduced risk of injury to people working in the printing cenres.
G The question newspaper workers must now ask, however is, how long will it be before the robots are writing the newspapers as well as running the printing centre, churning out the latest edition every morning?
Using the information in the passage, complete the flow chart below. Write your answers in boxes 33-40 on your answer sheet. Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
The production Process
The newspaper is ... (Example) ... at the editorial headquarters by the journalists. Answer compiled
The final version of the text is ... (33) ... to the printing centre. The pages arrive by facsimile. The pages are converted into ... (34) ... . ... (35) ... are made for use in the printing presses. The LGVs are ... (36) ... by computer. The LGVs collect the reels of paper. The LGVs remove the ... (37) ... from the reel. The reel is ... (38) ... . The reel is trimmed and prepared by the ... (39) ... . The reel is taken to the press. The reel is taken to the ...(40)...
© Cambridge University Press 2000. Cambridge IELTS 2.
You are advised to spend about 15 minutes on Questions 1-14 which refer to Reading Passage 1 below.
READING PASSAGE 1
1. The private car is assumed to have widened our horizons and increased our mobility. When we consider our children's mobility, they can be driven to more places (and more distant places) than they could visit without access to a motor vehicle. However, allowing our cities to be dominated by cars has progressively eroded children's independent mobility. Children have lost much of their freedom to explore their own neighbourhood or city without adult supervision. In recent surveys, when parents in some cities were asked about their own childhood experiences, the majority remembered having more, or far more, opportunities for going out on their own, compared with their own children today. They had more freedom to explore their own environment.
2. Children's independent access to their local streets may be important for their own personal, mental and psychological development. Allowing them to get to know their own neighbourhood and community gives them a 'sense of place'. This depends on 'active exploration', which is not provided for when children are passengers in cars. (Such children may see more, but they learn less.) Not only is it important that children be able to get to local play areas by themselves, but walking and cycling journeys to school and to other destinations provide genuine play activities in themselves.
3. There are very significant time and money costs for parents associated with transporting their children to school, sport and to other locations. Research in the United Kingdom estimated that this cost, in 1990, was between 10 billion and 20 billion pounds.
4. The reduction in children's freedom may also contribute to a weakening of the sense of local community. As fewer children and adults use the streets as pedestrians, these streets become less sociable places. There is less opportunity for children and adults to have the spontaneous of community. This in itself may exacerbate fears associated with assault and molestation of children, because there are fewer adults available who know their neighbours' children, and who can look out for their safety.
5. The extra traffic involved in transporting children results in increased traffic congestion, pollution and accident risk. As our roads become more dangerous, more parents drive their children to more places, thus contributing to increased levels of danger for the remaining pedestrians. Anyone who has experienced either the reduced volume of traffic in peak hour during school holidays, or the traffic jams near schools at the end of a school day, will not need convincing about these points. Thus, there are also important environmental implications of children's loss of freedom.
6. As individuals, parents strive to provide the best upbringing they can for their children. However, in doing so, (e.g. by driving their children to sport, school or recreation) parents may be contributing to a more dangerous environment for children generally. The idea that 'streets are for cars and back yards and playgrounds are for children' is a strongly held belief, and parents have little choice as individuals but to keep their children off the streets if they want to protect their safety.
7. In many parts of Dutch cities, and some traffic calmed precincts in Germany, residential streets are now places where cars must give way to pedestrians. In these areas, residents are accepting the view that the function of streets is not solely to provide mobility for cars. Streets may also be for social interaction, walking, cycling and playing. One of the most important aspects of these European cities, in terms of giving cities back to children, has been a range of 'traffic calming' initiatives, aimed at reducing the volume and speed of traffic. These initiatives have had complex interactive effects, leading to a sense that children have been able to 'recapture' their local neighbourhood, and more importantly, that they have been able to do this in safety. Recent research has demonstrated that children in many German cities have significantly higher levels of freedom to travel to places in their own neighbourhood or city than children in other cities in the world.
8. Modifying cities in order to enhance children's freedom will not only benefit children. Such cities will become more environmentally sustainable, as well as more sociable and more livable for all city residents. Perhaps it will be our concern for our children's welfare that convinces us that we need to challenge the dominance of the car in our cities.
Read statements 1-5 which relate to Paragraphs 1,2, and 3 of the reading passage. Answer Т if the statement is true, F if the statement is false, or NI if there is no information given in the passage. Write your answers in the spaces numbered 1-5 on the answer sheet. One has been done for you as an example.
Example: The private car has made people more mobile. Answer: Т
- The private car has helped children have more opportunities to learn.
- Children are more independent today than they used to be.
- Walking and cycling to school allows children to learn more.
- Children usually walk or cycle to school.
- Parents save time and money by driving children to school.
In Paragraphs 4 and 5, there are FOUR problems stated. These problems, numbered as questions 6-9, are listed below. Each of these problems has a cause, listed A-G. Find the correct cause for each of the problems and write the corresponding letter A-G, in the spaces numbered 6-9 on the answer sheet. One has been done for you as an example.
There are more causes than problems so you will not use all of them and you may use any cause more than once.
Example: low sense of community feeling
A few adults know local children
Questions 10-14 are statement beginnings which represent information given in Paragraphs 6, 7 and 8. In the box below, there are some statement endings numbered i-x. Choose the correct ending for each statement. Write your answers i-x, in the spaces numbered 10-14 on the answer sheet. One has been done for you as an example.
There are more statement endings than you will need.
Example: By driving their children to school, parents help create … Answer: i
- Children should play ...
- In some German towns, pedestrians have right of way …
- Streets should also be used for ...
- Reducing the amount of traffic and the speed is ...
- All people who live in the city will benefit if cities are ...
List of statement endings
i ... a dangerous environment.
ii ... modified.
iii ... on residential streets.
iv ... modifying cities.
v ... neighbourhoods.
vi ... socialising.
vii ... in backyards.
viii ... for cars.
ix ... traffic calming.
x ... residential
READING PASSAGE 2
Paragraph 1. INCREASED TEMPERATURES
The average air temperature at the surface of the earth has risen this century, as has the temperature of ocean surface waters. Because water expands as it heats, a warmer ocean means higher sea levels. We cannot say definitely that the temperature rises are due to the greenhouse effect; the heating may be part of a ‘natural’ variability over a long time-scale that we have not yet recognized in our short 100 years of recording. However, assuming the build up of greenhouse gases is responsible, and that the warming will continue, scientists – and inhabitants of low-lying coastal areas – would like to know the extent of future sea level rises.
Calculating this is not easy. Models used for the purpose have treated the ocean as passive, stationary and one-dimensional. Scientists have assumed that heat simply diffused into the sea from the atmosphere. Using basic physical laws, they then predict how much a known volume of water would expand for a given increase in temperature. But the oceans are not one-dimensional, and recent work by oceanographers, using a new model which takes into account a number of subtle facets of the sea – including vast and complex ocean currents – suggests that the rise in sea level may be less than some earlier estimates had predicted.
An international forum on climate change, in 1986, produced figures for likely sea-level rises of 20 cms and 1.4 m, corresponding to atmospheric temperature increases of 1.5 and 4.5C respectively. Some scientists estimate that the ocean warming resulting from those temperature increases by the year 2050 would raise the sea level by between 10 cms and 40 cms. This model only takes into account the temperature effect on the oceans; it does not consider changes in sea level brought about by the melting of ice sheets and glaciers, and changes in groundwater storage. When we add on estimates of these, we arrive at figures for total sea-level rises of 15 cm and 70 cm respectively.
It’s not easy trying to model accurately the enormous complexities of the ever-changing oceans, with their great volume, massive currents and sensitively to the influence of land masses and the atmosphere. For example, consider how heat enters the ocean. Does it just ‘diffuse’ from the warmer air vertically into the water, and heat only the surface layer of the sea? (Warm water is less dense than cold, so it would not spread downwards). Conventional models of sea-level rise have considered that this the only method, but measurements have shown that the rate of heat transfer into the ocean by vertical diffusion is far lower in practice than the figures that many modelers have adopted.
Much of the early work, for simplicity, ignored the fact that water in the oceans moves in three dimensions. By movement, of course, scientists don’t mean waves, which are too small individually to consider, but rather movement of vast volumes of water in huge currents. To understand the importance of this, we now need to consider another process – advection. Imagine smoke rising from a chimney. On a still day it will slowly spread out in all directions by means of diffusion. With a strong directional wind, however, it will all shift downwind, this process is advection – the transport of properties (notably heat and salinity in the ocean) by the movement of bodies of air or water, rather than by conduction or diffusion.
Massive ocean currents called gyres do the moving. These currents have far more capacity to store heat than does the atmosphere. Indeed, just the top 3 m of the ocean contains more heat than the whole of the atmosphere. The origin of gyres lies in the fact that more heat from the Sun reaches the Equator than the Poles, and naturally heat tends to move from the former to the latter. Warm air rises at the Equator, and draws more air beneath it in the form of winds (the “Trade Winds”) that, together with other air movements, provide the main force driving the ocean currents.
Water itself is heated at the Equator and moves poleward, twisted by the Earth’s rotation and affected by the positions of the continents. The resultant broadly circular movements between about 10 and 40 North and South are clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. They flow towards the east at mid latitudes in the equatorial region. They then flow towards the Poles, along the eastern sides of continents, as warm currents. When two different masses of water meet, one will move beneath the other, depending on their relative densities in the subduction process. The densities are determined by temperature and salinity. the convergence of water of different densities from the Equator and the Poles deep in the oceans causes continuous subduction. This means that water moves vertically as well as horizontally. Cold water from the Poles travels as depth – it is denser than warm water – until it emerges at the surface in another part of the world in the form of a cold current.
Paragraph 8. HOW THE GREEN HOUSE EFFECT WILL CHANGE OCEAN TEMPERATURES
Ocean currents, in three dimensions, form a giant ‘conveyor belt’, distributing heat from the thin surface layer into the interior of the oceans and around the globe. Water may take decades to circulate in these 3-D gyres in the lop kilometer of the ocean, and centuries in the deep water. With the increased atmospheric temperatures due to the greenhouse effect, the oceans conveyor belt will carry more heat into the interior. This subduction moves heat around far more effectively than simple diffusion. Because warm water expands more than cold when it is heated, scientists had presumed that the sea level would rise unevenly around the globe. It is now believed that these inequalities cannot persist, as winds will act to continuously spread out the water expansion. Of course, of global warming changes the strength and distribution of the winds, then this ‘evening-out’ process may not occur, and the sea level could rise more in some areas than others.
There are 8 paragraphs numbered 1-8 in Reading Passage 2. The first paragraph and the last paragraph have been given headings. From the list below numbered A-I, choose a suitable heading for the remaining 6 paragraphs. Write your answers A-I, in the spaces numbered 15-20 on the answer sheet.
There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use all the headings.
List of headings
A THE GYRE PRINCIPLE
B THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT
C HOW OCEAN WATERS MOVE
D STATISTICAL EVIDENCE
E THE ADVECTION PRINCIPLE
F DIFFUSION VERSUS ADVECTION
G FIGURING THE SEA LEVEL CHANGES
H ESTIMATED FIGURES
I THE DIFFUSION MODEL
- Paragraph 2
- Paragraph 3
- Paragraph 4
- Paragraph 5
- Paragraph 6
- Paragraph 7
Questions 21 and 22
Answer questions 21 and 22 by selecting the correct answer to complete each sentence according to the information given in the reading passage. Write your answers А, В, С or D in the spaces numbered 21 and 22 on the answer sheet.
21. Scientists do not know for sure why the air and surface of ocean temperatures are rising because:
A there is too much variability
В there is not enough variability
С they have not been recording these temperatures for enough time
D the changes have only been noticed for 100 years
22. New research leads scientists to believe that:
A the oceans are less complex
В the oceans are more complex
С the oceans will rise more than expected
D the oceans will rise less than expected
Look at the following list of factors A-F and select THREE which are mentioned in the reading passage which may contribute to the rising ocean levels. Write the THREE corresponding letters A-F, in the space numbered 23 on the answer sheet.
List of factors
A thermal expansion
В melting ice
С increased air temperature
D higher rainfall
E changes in the water table
F increased ocean movement
Read each of the following statements, 24-28. According to the information in the reading passage, if the statement is true, write T, if it is false, write F and if there is no information about the statement in the reading passage, write N1. Write your answers in the spaces numbered 24-28 on the answer sheet.
- The surface layer of the oceans is warmed by the atmosphere.
- Advection of water changes heat and salt levels.
- A gyre holds less heat than there is in the atmosphere.
- The process of subduction depends on the water density.
- The sea level is expected to rise evenly over the Earth's surface
You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 29-40 which refer to Reading Passage 3 below.
READING PASSAGE 3
1. Computerised data storage and electronic mail were to have heralded the paperless office. But, contrary to expectations, paper consumption throughout the world shows no sign of abating. In fact, consumption, especially of printing and writing papers, continues to increase. World demand for paper and board is now expected to grow faster than the general economic growth in the next 15 years. Strong demand will be underpinned by the growing industrialization of South-East Asia, the re-emergence of paper packaging, greater use of facsimile machines and photocopiers, and the popularity of direct-mail advertising. It is possible that by 2007, world paper and board demand will reach 455 million tonnes, compared with 241 million tonnes in 1991.
2. The pulp and paper industry has not been badly affected by the electronic technologies that promised a paperless society. But what has radically altered the industry's structure is pressure from another front—a more environmentally conscious society driving an irreversible move towards cleaner industrial production. The environmental consequences of antiquated pulp mill practices and technologies had marked this industry as one in need of reform. Graphic descriptions of deformed fish and thinning populations, particularly in the Baltic Sea where old pulp mills had discharged untreated effluents for 100 years, have disturbed the international community.
3. Until the 1950s, it was common for pulp mills and other industries to discharge untreated effluent into rivers and seas. The environmental effects were at the time either not understood, or regarded as an acceptable cost of economic prosperity in an increasingly import-oriented world economy. But greater environmental awareness has spurred a fundamental change in attitude in the community, in government and in industry itself.
4. Since the early 1980s, most of the world-scale pulp mills in Scandinavia and North America have modernised their operations, outlaying substantial amounts to improve production methods. Changes in mill design and processes have been aimed at minimising the environmental effects of effluent discharge while at the same time producing pulp with the whiteness and strength demanded by the international market. The environmental impetus is taking this industry even further, with the focus now on developing processes that may even eliminate waste-water discharges. But the ghost of the old mills continues to haunt the industry today. In Europe, companies face a flood of environment-related legislation. In Germany, companies are now being held responsible for the waste they create.
5. Pulp is the porridge-like mass of plant fibres from which paper is made. Paper makers choose the type of plant fibre and the processing methods, depending on what the end product will be used for: whether it is a sturdy packing box, a smooth sheet of writing paper or a fragile tissue. In wood, which is the source of about 90% of the world's paper production, fibres are bound together by lignin, which gives the unbleached pulp a brown colour. The pulping stage separates the wood into fibres so they are suitable for paper making. Pulping can be done by mechanical grinding, or by chemical treatment in which woodchips are 'cooked' with chemicals, or by a combination of both methods.
6. Kraft pulping is the most widely used chemical process for producing pulp with the strength required by the high-quality paper market. It is now usually carried out in a continuous process in a large vessel called a digester. Woodchips are fed from a pile into the top of the digester. In the digester, the chips are cooked in a solution called white liquor, nosed of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) sodium sulphide. The chips are cooked at high temperatures of up to 170° С for up to three hours. The pulp is then washed and rate from the spent cooking liquor which has turned dark and is now appropriately ailed black liquor. An important feature of kraft pulping is a chemical recovery system which recycles about 95% of the cooking chemicals and produces more than enough energy to run the mill. In a series of steps involving a furnace and tanks, some of the black liquor is transformed into energy, while some is regenerated into the original white cooking liquor. The recovery system is an integral part of production in the pulp and paper industry. The pulp that comes out has little lignin left in the fibres. Bleaching removes the last remaining lignin and brightens the pulp. Most modern mills have modified their pulping processes to remove as much of the lignin as possible before the pulp moves to the bleaching stage.
Below is a list of possible factors, A-G, which will influence the amount of paper being used in the future. From the list, choose FOUR factors which are mentioned in Paragraph 1 of the reading passage. Write your answers A-G, in the spaces numbered 29-32 on the answer sheet.
List of factors
A more people read newspapers
В increased use of paper bags
C increased book production for education
D wider use of sign post advertising
E increased use of fax machines
F wider use of leaflet advertising
G greater use of duplicating machines
The following THREE statements are summaries of Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 respectively. However, they are incomplete. Complete each of the statements using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS FROM THE TEXT. Write your answers in the spaces numbered 33-35 on the answer sheet.
- The international community has begun to demand ...
- In the past, the environmental effects of pulp mill practices, were probably a price to pay for ...
- Some paper mills have recently modernised their mill design in order to decrease...
Below is a list of possible steps in the kraft process of turning wood chips into paper. They are numbered 1-8. Only FIVE of the steps listed below are mentioned in the passage. The steps are not listed in the correct order. Decide which steps are mentioned and write them in the correct order. Write the appropriate number for each step in the correct order in the spaces numbered 36-40 on the answer sheet.
- the chips are cooked
- the fibres are bound by lignin
- the pulp is bleached
- woodchips are put into a pile
- the pulp is dried
- the pulp is removed from the black liquor
- the chips are put into the white liquor
- the pulp is washed
© CALUSA. University of South Australia. 1996 IELTS: Practice now. Practice in Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking for the Test
Oсновные моменты подготовки и сдачи теста
1. Выберите реальную и достижимую цель
Тест измеряет многие аспекты ваших возможностей, включая скорость, с которой вы слушаете, читаете, пишете, говорите и думаете на английском языке. Ваша скорость зависит от работы над языком. Увеличьте скорость чтения предложений, чтобы успеть ответить на как можно большее количество вопросов.
9. Всегда смотрите на образец!
последнее обновление 14.10.09
Подготовка к чтению в IELTS - одной из самых трудных частей теста, состоит в том, что вам необходимо попытаться применить различные техники чтения. Например, вот одна из них. Следуйте ей шаг за шагом, чтобы убедиться – работает она для вас или нет.
1. Просмотрите заголовок и все имеющиеся картинки.
Этим самым вы пытаетесь предположить, что вам предстоит читать – это поможет вам быстрее найти ответы на вопросы.
2. Определите, сколько в тексте параграфов.
Это поможет сфокусироваться на нахождении информации в тексте.
3. Прочитайте и подчеркните первое предложение в каждом параграфе, обведите какие-то важные слова.
Это очень хороший путь чтобы получить быстро, но ясно, идею текста и как текст организован.
4. Просмотрите первые вопросы. Из вашего общего знакомства с текстом, попытайтесь решить, который параграф содержит ответ.
Таким образом вы можете использовать ваш здравый смысл, чтобы обнаружить наиболее вероятный ответ.
5. Используя свой словарный запас, просмотрите быстро параграф и попытайтесь соотнести слова, содержащиеся в вопросе со словами в тексте.
Словарный запас – хороший ключ для того, чтобы найти ответы.
6. Если вы не можете найти ответ, переходите к другому параграфу.
Ответ может быть в предыдущем или последующем параграфе.
7. Если ли вы до сих пор не нашли ответ, не тратьте больше на него время. Предположите, какой ответ должен быть в этом вопросе и двигайте дальше!
Не тратьте слишком много времени на один ответ. Многие получают плохие баллы на чтении только потому, что они тратили слишком много времени на один или два вопроса и не успевали ответить на все вопросы! Ваша задача - ответить на как можно большее количество вопросов из 40 предложенных.
При использовании этой техники, возможно, бОльшая часть текста будет вами не понята или даже не прочитана. Это нормально, просто эти области текста не содержат ответы. Ваша задача - обработать текст как можно быстрее и найти максимально-возможное количество ответов, что весьма отличается от обычного чтения для удовольствия.
Еще несколько советов
1. Вы должны понимать разницу между 'FALSE' и 'NOT GIVEN'.
Если вы пишете 'FALSE', значит вы говорите, что информация данная на этот вопрос ПРОТИВОПОЛОЖНА той, что представлена в тексте. Если вы пишете 'NOT GIVEN', значит вы НИЧЕГО НЕ МОЖЕТЕ НАЙТИ ОБ ЭТОЙ ИНФОРМАЦИИ В ТЕКСТЕ (ни положительного, ни отрицательного).
2. Когда вы будете выполнять тест с рекламными объявлениями (для General Reading), помните, что масса инфы дается именно в них. Вам следует быть очень внимательным, сканируя подобные объявы. В тоже время держите в голове мысль, что вам нет необходимости понимать абсолютно весь текст, главное - найти ответ на вопрос.
3. При выполнении задания MATCHING вы столкнетесь с тем, что здесь вам придется выбирать ответ из нескольких ответов. В этом случае, призовите на помощь свою логику - исключите сначала те ответы, которые явно не подходят к данному вопросу. Затем выбирайте из оставшихся. То есть действуйте методом исключения.
4. Советы бывалых:
Стратегия нашего учителя нейтива на курсах подготовки к IELTS была такова:
"Перед тем как прочитать вопросы, вы сначала сканируете текст и подчеркиваете там ключевые слова или фразы." Это по его словам поможет потом моментально и правильно выбрать верный вариант ответа.
Все бы хорошо, но тут проблема(по-крайней мере для меня) с тем что бы найти в тексте то что считается ключевой фразой. Иногда они конечно выпирают, как, например, в тексте о каком то ресторане фразы когда ресторан работает, какое там дежурное блюдо в четверг или какая национальная кухня используется, но в большинстве случаев, не зная вопросов трудно выцепить все ключевые слова. Поэтому я для себя несколько модифицировал его тактику. Сначала я быстро пробегал глазами весь текст что бы понять его структуру, т.е. понять в какой части текста я потом буду искать ответ на каждый конкретный вопрос, потом вопрос за вопросом я искал ответы в тех частях текста, которая на мой взгляд наиболее соотвествовала вопросу.
Помогало на ура, хотя и встречались моменты, когда приходилось быстро по несколько раз читать весь текст от начала до конца, что бы найти ответ на какой то конкретный вопрос. Если я видел что я не могу долго найти ответ на какой то вопрос, то я его пропускал и что бы не терять времени отвечал на следующие вопросы. Только ответив на все простые я брался за проблемные. Мне так было проще, тем более что в конце взявшись опять за проблемные вопросы я уже лучше знал текст и было проще найти ответ для них. Если уж совсем было туго, то пытался предугадать ответ исходя из того что я понял в тексте.
Стратегия для T, F, NG - если в тексте явно(!) на что-то указывалось, то это TRUE. Если явно указывалось обратное - FALSE. Ну а если затрудняешься ответить и таких явных указаний нет, то скорее всего это NOT GIVEN. По своему опыту - не нужно строить логических цепочек и предполагать, что что-то из чего-то следует или думать,. В тексте не сказано явно - NOT GIVEN.
Ну а лучше всего пройди несколько тестов, проверь ответы. После этого почуствуешь что там к чему.
Текст "сканировать" по абзацам. Для каждого абзаца выделять его тематику, направленность, можно даже сбоку подписать - вот это, например, историческая справка, вот это - какие проблемы сейчас, вот это - то-то и то-то.
Помогает тем, что делается довольно быстро, т.к. тема параграфа содержится в первых 2-3 предложениях. Не надо читать весь параграф, просто потом по теме вопроса выбираем нужный абзац и ищем ответ.
Такой техникой пользовался при сдаче, в итоге на проверку ответов осталось около 10-15 мин., банд по ридингу - 6.5;
последние изменения вносились 14.10.09